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JUST THE ANSWER

https://youtu.be/3NXC4Q_4JVg

https://youtu.be/SKo-_Xxfywk

 

To say that all African slaves who were brought to the Americas shared an identical history and culture is the same as saying that all Latin American peoples share an identical  history and culture: it is a generalization. There was not one Pan-African identity. In fact, the primary regions from where these people were taken were diverse in all aspects of culture and society–from religion and customs to language and social hierarchy. Because these groups were so diverse, communication was often difficult among groups since they spoke different languages. 

The principal areas of Africa from which these slaves were obtained were West Africa (Senegal to Gabon fifty-five percent); Central Africa (Congo and Angola twenty-five percent); and East Africa (mainly Mozambique — twenty percent). Those taken specifically to the United States were drawn from West Africa (Senegal to Gabon seventy-three percent); Central Africa (Congo and Angola twenty-five percent); and East Africa (mainly Mozambique — two percent), The removal of slaves from Africa followed a general pattern that, starting in West Africa, saw the prime source areas shifting eastward and southward over time. This meant that the following areas successively became the focal point of obtaining slaves: Senegambia/Sierra Leone, Windward Coast, Gold Coast, Bight of Benin, Bight of Biafra, Congo/ Angola, and Mozambique (New Jersey Historical Commission).  As a result, cultural practices and creative expression in the Americas evolved depending on the African group present in the region. Thus, customs and practices deriving from African origin in the Spanish-speaking Caribbean are not necessarily similar or related to customs and practices in Brazil or Peru. Next we will examine a few of these cultural expressions.  

 

Afro-Brazilian Culture

 

Slavery in Brazil

Between 1561 and 1860, about 43% of all Africans brought to the Americas landed in Brazil, totaling almost five million. About 70% of the enslaved Africans in Brazil were Angolan. Other noted African regions of the slave trade included Nigeria and Benin. Having established an economic culture largely based on slave labor, Brazil was the last country in the western hemisphere to abolish slavery in 1888, trailing Cuba by two years and the United States by 23 years. Today, Brazil reports some ninety-seven million African descendants out of a total population of 190 million. Brazil has the second largest percentage of African descendants in the world, only second to Nigeria. About a third of Brazil’s enslaved Africans were trafficked through the port of Bahia. Today, Bahia continues to be a center of black life in Brazil. Given such a long history of African presence, African culture has survived in terms of the religious syncretism of Candomblé and Umbanda to the religious representations of Xangô. In addition, carnival is a sure sign of African culture thriving in Brazil.

The Brazil Institute briefly explains post-abolition life (Links to an external site.) in the country and the government-sponsored policy of branqueamento, meant to whiten the population, beginning the long and complicated views on race with which current Brazilian society struggles. 

Although Brazil still struggles to address the consequences of 350 years of slavery, the African influence on the nation is one of the most rich in Latin America. We will briefly explore the religion Candomblé, Samba and Carnaval, and Capoeira, which all came from the black communities of Brazil, the quilombos

The episode “Bahia: Brazil’s African Connection (Links to an external site.)” of In the Americas with David Yateman provides us with an introduction to Afro-Brazilian culture and Salvador da Bahia.

Sources:

“African Slave Trade in Latin America.” Center for Latin American Studies, Vanderbilt University.

Gates, H.L (2011). Black in Latin America. 13-180. New York: New York University Press.

 

Afro-Cuban Culture

 

Slavery in Cuba

Beginning in 1762, a brief British occupation led to a huge increase in African slavery on the island of Cuba. Later, Cuban planters continued to import large numbers of Africans, with the period from 1790 to 1867 as the largest period of slave importations. After Haiti’s sugar economy collapsed, Cuba soon replaced Haiti as the world’s number one supplier of sugar. Between 1651 and 1866, Cuba received almost 800,000 enslaved Africans. Capitalizing on Haiti’s failed state, Spanish conquistadors went full speed ahead into cultivating Cuba’s sugar plantations. By the 1820s, Cuba had become the “largest sugar exporter in the world and the largest slave economy in the western hemisphere. (Gates).  By 1850, sugar was almost 83% of Cuban exports and 40% of those sugar exports going to the United States. On October 10, 1868, Cuba began its first War of Independence from Spain. Plantation owner Manuel de Céspedes freed his slaves and armed them to fight for independence. Forty-eight hours later, brothers Antonio and José Maceo, free blacks, joined the rebels against Spain. On February 10, 1878 the Treaty of Zanjón, a peace agreement, was signed. General Antonio Maceo and others unsuccessfully protested that the abolition of slavery was not a part of the treaty. During Cuba’s second War of Independence in 1896, the Maceo brothers died in battle just six months part. It would be another decade before the Maceo brothers’ dream of a free Cuba for all would be realized. Slavery was abolished by royal decree on Oct, 7, 1886, some 21 years after the United States.

 

The 20th century Cuban poet, Nicolás Guillén, writes about the brutality and legacy of slavery in much of his works, like his poem “Caña” (“Sugarcane“):

El negro
junto al cañaveral.

El yanqui
sobre el cañaveral.

La tierra
bajo el cañaveral.

¡Sangre
que se nos va!

The black man
bound to the canefield.

The Yankee
above the canefield.

The earth
beneath the canefield.

Blood
seeps out of us!

As in other parts of the Americas, slavery left a lasting mark on Cuban culture and society. Next, you will learn more about these influences, particularly in music. We will be spending time at the end of the semester discussing the music of Latin America, so this will be an introduction. 

Sources:

“African Slave Trade in Latin America.” Center for Latin American Studies, Vanderbilt University.

Franklin, J. (1997). Cuba and the United States: A chronological history. 1-4. Melbourne: Ocean Press

Gates, H.L. (2011). Black in Latin America. 13-180. New York: New York University Press.

Landers, J. (2008). Slavery in the Spanish Caribbean and the Failure of Abolition. Review (Fernand Braudel Center), 31(3), 343-371

After reviewing the learning materials in this module (lectures, readings, videos), answer the following prompt in a focused response:

After learning about the African influence in Latin America, how significant are the cultural contributions from the African diaspora, and how do they add to the complexity of Latin American identity? What stood out? 

Submit a well-composed response by writing in the “Reply” section directly below this prompt. If you would like to reply to other people, write in the “Reply” section below their post. 

Protocols:

  1. Produce a substantial response to the given prompt (about 200 words – remember, your post should be detailed and specific enough to demonstrate that you have a thorough understanding of the learning materials

learning journal entry 4

learning journal entry 4

 https://www.jstor.org/stable/981356?sid=primo&saml_data=eyJzYW1sVG9rZW4iOiJiNDQ1MzVkZS1iNDdkLTQ2OWUtYmQyNS0wMmRkODhmZjJmZmYiLCJlbWFpbCI6IlN0YWNleS5EaUxpYmVydG9AdWNmLmVkdSIsImluc3RpdHV0aW9uSWRzIjpbIjlkYjM3YmI0LWYzMjAtNDZhMy04NWYyLTc4NWFlZDE4YTNlMyJdfQ#metadata_info_tab_contents

 

Mexico & Peru: The Black Grandma in the Closet

Directed by Ilana Trachtman, Produced by Ilana Trachtman, Wall to Wall Media, Thirteen Productions, Inkwell Films, In Black in Latin America, Episode 4 (Arlington, VA: Public Broadcasting Service, 2011)53 minutes

In a style similar to “Wonders of the African World,” Skip Gates will travel to places in Latin America where Africa has touched the continent with lasting cultural results to explore what happens when African and Hispanic worlds meet. In Mexico and Peru, Professor Gates explores the almost unknown history of the significant numbers of black people–the two countries together received far more slaves than did the U.S.–and the worlds of culture that their descendants have created in Vera Cruz on the Gulf of Mexico, the Costa Chica region on the Pacific, and in and around Lima, Peru.

Haiti & Dominican Republic: An Island Divided

 In a style similar to “Wonders of the African World,” Skip Gates will travel to places in Latin America where Africa has touched the continent with lasting cultural results to explore what happens when African and Hispanic worlds meet. In the Dominican Republic, explore how race has been socially constructed in a society whose people reflect centuries of inter-marriage and how the country’s troubled history with Haiti informs notions about racial classification. In Haiti, hear the story of the birth of the first-ever black republic and investigate the slaves’ hard fight for liberation over Napoleon Bonaparte’s French Empire. 

Cuba: The Next Revolution

 In a style similar to “Wonders of the African World,” Skip Gates will travel to places in Latin America where Africa has touched the continent with lasting cultural results to explore what happens when African and Hispanic worlds meet. In Cuba Professor Gates finds out how the culture, religion, politics and music of this island are inextricably linked to the huge amount of slave labor imported to produce its enormously profitable 19th century sugar industry, and how race and racism have fared since Fidel Castro’s Communist revolution in 1959. 

Brazil: A Racial Paradise?

Directed by Ricardo Pollack, Produced by Ricardo Pollack, Wall to Wall Media, Thirteen Productions, Inkwell Films, In Black in Latin 

 In a style similar to “Wonders of the African World,” Skip Gates will travel to places in Latin America where Africa has touched the continent with lasting cultural results to explore what happens when African and Hispanic worlds meet. In Brazil, Professor Gates goes behind the façade of Carnival to discover how this “rainbow nation” is waking up to its legacy as the world’s largest slave economy. 

  1. After watching one of the assigned episodes of Black in Latin America, comment on what you saw. How did the episode enrich your understanding of the African influence in Latin America?  Use examples from the episode to support your conclusion.

You may also choose to jot down any thoughts or questions this unit inspired that you might want to revisit later for your final project. See the due date in the course schedule

Protocols:

  • Journal entries should average 250 words each (more is fine; it will be difficult to make substantive reflections in much less than this).
  • Clearly label (number your journal entry)
  • Your entries will be kept private and are meant to help you deepen your understanding of the course concepts and also help you generate ideas for your final project.
  • Make sure to proofread and revise your posts. Even though these entries are personal, it is still expected that you produce college-level writing.
  • Keep up with the due dates for each entry. You don’t want to fall behind.
  • If you meet all of these criteria, producing a well-developed entry, you will receive a “complete” grade on this assignment.

 

discussion 3

discussion 3

150 words

 

  1. Consider the factors affecting location decisions for manufacturing and services. How are they different?  
  2. In most cases, the manufacturing operations supply products to the service operations.  What strategies are used relating to the supply chain logistics network to support improved performance? 
  3. Consider the operational risks that exists within a supply chain.  How can ERP systems and lean systems be applied to help mitigate these risk within the entire supply chain?

discussion 2

discussion 2

150 words

 

  • Why are benefits strategically important to employers, and what are some key strategic considerations?
  • Based on the information discussed in the chapter, how would you oversee the design (or redesign) of a benefits program in a large organization? What issues would you consider?
  • What can first-line supervisors do to help control workers’ compensation costs, and how might they be rewarded for doing so?
  • What should an employer do when facing an OSHA inspection?
  • As the HR manager of a distribution and warehouse firm with 600 employees, you plan to discuss a company wellness program at an executive staff meeting next week. The topics to cover include what a wellness program is, how it can benefit the company and employees, and the process for establishing it. 

discussion 1

discussion 1

150 words

 

  • Discuss what factors make up an organization’s culture and how do you ensure that culture is sustainable and ethical?
  • Have you ever received a performance appraisal? Describe your reaction to the appraisal system. If you haven’t, please explain what appraisal process you would prefer.
  • As a manager, discuss what would you do if you discovered a group of employees were slaves to their placement agencies?

hw psy

hw psy

 Prompt:In chapter three you learned about the biological foundations of behavior. In this discussion, I would like for you to watch the following video. How does this relate to what you learned in this chapter? What are the potential research areas that this could apply to? How does this impact what we know about the brain? Feel free to add any relevant information you may find interesting. Also, please note that this does not meet the requirements for having an outside source included in your discussion. You still need to include one outside source that is not your textbook or this video, in APA format.

Requirements:

  • The INITIAL post is due THURSDAY and should be a minimum of 200 words and contain a scholarly reference that is NOT your textbook or video I provided.

https://youtu.be/VaDlLD97CLM 

hw inr

hw inr

 

Should developing countries embrace international economic integration (i.e., international trade and investment) in order to attain higher rates of economic development? State clearly whether you are arguing developing countries should or should not embrace international economic integration. Whichever side of the debate you choose, describe the logic behind both sides of the debate (i.e., in addition to developing your case, also describe the strongest possible case for the counterargument) by reference to Module 2 readings. Clearly make the case for why the logic of the arguments on one side of the debate is more persuasive than the logic of the arguments on the other side. Also consider relevant empirical evidence and make the case for why it supports one side of the debate more than the other. Your post should be based on the arguments of the authors and the empirical evidence from Module 2 readings. Clearly identify the readings you are citing by the author’s name and page.

… the  post should be 3-4 paragraphs 

 

Read:

Milanovic, Branko. Global Inequality. Required reading: chapters 1, 2 (p. 46-59; 103-112), 3 (p. 118-137) and 4 (161-176, 191-211). The rest of the book is not required.

NOTE: this required reading refers to Milanovic’s book, not to his chapter in Lechner & Boli.

Dollar, David and Aart Kraay. “Trade, Growth, and Poverty.” Available at JSTOR: http://www.jstor.org/stable/3590109 (Links to an external site.).

Harvey, David. “A Brief History of Neoliberalism.” Ch. 8 in Lechner & Boli, pp. 67-72.

Collier, Paul. “The Bottom Billion: Why the Poorest Countries are Failing and What Can be Done About It.” Ch. 24 in Lechner & Boli, pp. 194-199.

Kristof, Nicholas D. and Sheryl WuDunn. “Two Cheers for Sweatshops” Available at: http://www.nytimes.com/2000/09/24/magazine/two-cheers-for-sweatshops.html (Links to an external site.) 10

Also available: https://www.proquest.com/docview/2265621594?accountid=10003&pq-origsite=primo (Links to an external site.)

D’Mello, Bernard. “Reebok and the global footwear sweatshop.” Available at UCF Library: https://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&db=apn&AN=ALTP334968&site=eds-live&scope=site&custid=current&groupid=main&authtype=shib (Links to an external site.)

case study

case study

 

For the Week 5 Case Study, you will review Case Incident 2 “Leadership by Algorithm” on page 426 and answer the three questions that follow. 

It is not sufficient to state your opinions alone; you must be able to backup your responses by applying concepts from the text with the case data that supports your findings. Expected response length is 3 sentences per question. Please restate the question you are answering in your case study.

Through writing this case study you will be required to demonstrate a knowledge of how to integrate OB concepts with the case data, how to conduct research, and how to properly cite sources using APA formatting guidelines.  You will be responsible for using a minimum of 2 scholarly/peer reviewed sources. Textbooks are not considered a scholarly/peer reviewed source; however, they may still be included as a supplemental

hw learning journal 3

hw learning journal 3

 

For your Learning Journal entry this week, respond to the following prompt:

  1. Further explore one of the cultural expressions in this module (art, literature, architecture, etc.) and comment on how that artifact represents syncreticism/transculturation in Latin America. Use examples from the resource to support your conclusion.

Protocols:

  • Journal entries should average 250 words each (more is fine; it will be difficult to make substantive reflections in much less than this).
  • Clearly label (number your journal entry)
  • Your entries will be kept private and are meant to help you deepen your understanding of the course concepts and also help you generate ideas for your final project.
  • Make sure to proofread and revise your posts. Even though these entries are personal, it is still expected that you produce college-level writing.
  • Keep up with the due dates for each entry. You don’t want to fall behind.
  • If you meet all of these criteria, producing a well-developed entry, you will receive a “complete” grade on this assignment. 

BELOW IS THE INFORMATION FOR THE QUESTION

  

Syncretism and Religion

While the Catholic Church dominated all facets of Colonial Latin American life, the “old ways” could not be fully suppressed. In some isolated communities and smaller villages, a parallel society developed which preserved, as best it could, Pre-Columbian indigenous heritage.

To this day, there are still a number of communities, primarily in the more remote areas, which live much like their indigenous ancestors did. As well, it would be incorrect to imply that in the 300 years of colonization the Europeans did not borrow or absorb anything from the indigenous or African cultures. Transculturation, after all, implies a give-and-take process and not a one way street. While indigenous and African peoples were forced in one way or another to accept Catholicism, they also blended their own beliefs with those of the “true religion.” It was easy enough to consider one of the many Catholic saints as one of a pantheon of African or indigenous deities.  We see this in the Afro-Caribbean religions of Santeria and Voudou and the Afro-Brazilian religion of Candomble, all of which we will discuss in the next module.  

Another iconic example of cultural and religious syncretism is the Virgin of Guadalupe in Mexico, who has become a national symbol for Mexico and a patroness of the Americas for Catholic believers. According to legend, an indigenous peasant named Juan Diego encountered the Virgin in a vision on the barren hill of Tepeyac in 1531.  Tepeyac had once been the sight of an Aztec temple for the mother goddess Tonantzin, so many indigenous peoples view the Virgin and Tonantzin as synonymous. The Virgin spoke to Juan Diego in Nahuatl, his native language, and had the physical appearance of a mestiza: tan, olive skin and dark brown hair. After seeking out the archbishop of Mexico City, who asked him for further proof of the apparition, Juan Diego returned to the hill only to find roses blooming in the normally fallow place. Gathering them up in his cloak, he returned to the city, whereupon opening the cloak, he revealed the image of the Virgin imprinted inside it.

This cloak, or tilma, now hangs in the Basilica of Guadalupe in Mexico City where devoted pilgrims visit her shrine. In the visual arts, the Virgin of Guadalupe is always depicted with tan skin and dark hair, representing the indigenous population of Mexico. She appears on all types of objects, even souvenirs, and it has been said that her image is the most widely circulated in Latin America. 

 

The Power of Hegemony and Transculturation

 

Hierarchical Control

The key element in creating a stable and orderly society during the approximate 300 years of colonial life was hierarchy. Parallel to the hierarchical political structure was an equally hierarchical social structure. The social structure was complex and based on a lot of factors, but perhaps the overriding factor was race and ethnicity. The conquest involved indigenous and European peoples; however, African slaves were eventually brought to the Americas to offset the decline in the indigenous population. Through 300 years of colonization, the reality of Latin America was the mixture of these ethnic and cultural groups–what is called transculturation. Another word synonymous with this blending of cultures is syncreticism: the amalgamation of different religions, cultures, or schools of thought. Finally, mestizaje, a word that comes up frequently in Latin American studies, specifically refers to the blending of races–a key theme in Colonial Latin American art and postcolonial Latin American culture to the present day. 

Race in Latin America

Very soon after the conquest, Spanish men and Indigenous women became the parents of mestizo children. Mestizo children were treated as second-class citizens who inherited very little from their Spanish fathers. This was only the beginning of an attempt to control race mixing. To control colonial Latin America, the Europeans sorted people into fixed categories called castes (castas in Spanish). A person’s caste classification was noted in the baptismal register. People of low caste had numerous restrictions placed upon them. There seem to have been upwards of 15 different categories of castas depending on the various ethnic combinations that could occur over time through “racial” mixing.

To illustrate the Casta System, paintings were commissioned to illustrate all these variations. The majority of these paintings made their way to Spain where they were viewed like species classifications. The paintings clearly illustrate the varying economic and social advantages of one caste over another. Through a system termed “gracias al sacar” some people could, in a sense, buy “whiteness”.  Another way to improve one’s social mobility without legal permission was to “marry up” by marrying someone of a lighter skin color or to serve in the military to increase one’s honorable status despite the color of one’s skin. All of these notions indicate the colonial obsession with race mixing which was ever so present during the colonial period.

 

Renaissance Mentality: A Review

At the time of the conquest there was an intellectual awakening in Europe known as the Renaissance. This era, also known as the Age of Discovery, gave rise to many new ideas which defied medieval superstitions and pushed the boundaries of knowledge. While the Iberians lagged behind the rest of Europe in some aspects of the Renaissance, in the field of exploration and navigation the Iberians were in the forefront. They excelled in new weaponry and navigation techniques such as piloting and the ability to adapt coastal ships to the challenges of the open ocean.

The contrast between Renaissance philosophies and the scholasticism of the Middle Ages cannot be understated. Humans began to depart from the Church-controlled scholasticism. For example, theories describing the earth as flat were replaced by new notions of the earth as a sphere which could be navigated without the danger of falling off.

The Spanish conquistadors conceived the world with the dynamic optimism of the Renaissance and the idea of progress. As the explorer Bernal Diaz del Castillo summarized, “we came here to serve God and the King and also to get rich.” These words indicate the main motive of the Spanish conquerors to reach the New World: the achievement of wealth and social status. Most of the Spanish conquerors came from the lesser nobility or were of plebeian origin. They saw the New World as an opportunity for upward social mobility and the crusading ideal of converting masses to the Christian religion.

Spain and La Reconquista

Spain’s geographic position is unique in Europe, and it has had tremendous influence over its development. First, the Pyrenees Mountains serve to isolate the Iberian Peninsula from the rest of Europe on the one hand, and make it a transition zone to Africa. Its geographic location also lends itself to maritime enterprises to the west or to the south. Additionally, the land is not terribly suitable for agriculture and mountainous regions serve to create small pockets of human population which in turn results in strong regionalism and individualism.

The Peninsula was also the target of many invasions and it was almost completely conquered by the Moors by the year 718 C.E. There remained, however, a Christian stronghold in northern Spain which launched a struggle to regain their lost lands and peoples. This struggle termed La Reconquista or The Reconquest took on the character of religious crusades, pitting Christian against Muslim. The reconquest of Spain meant the expulsion or forced conversion of Muslims and Jews. This religious zeal would carry over into the conquest of the “New World.”

 

Heroes of La Reconquista like El Cid became the quintessential Spanish hero. He represented a man who could fight a battle, court a woman, write a poem, and rule a kingdom with equal skill, individualism, honor, and style. These then became the values ingrained in the Iberian character, the values of individual military prowess, religious crusades, conquest, and capture of booty.

The Spanish Conquistadors are said to have been motivated by the three G’s: god, gold, and glory although not necessarily in that order. The religious nature of the reconquest extended to the “New World” as the Church saw the potential of new converts to Catholicism. Additionally, these explorers could potentially elevate their status in society by bringing back riches such as gold and silver found in the conquered lands. Most of these early conquistadors were uneducated and had much to gain from these expeditions.

 

Sailors, captains, and soldiers were the first to describe the New World to the European readers. They wrote to the metropolis to receive rewards and privileges or to justify their actions. In their letters, stories, chronicles, and reports they told of their great deeds and they described with admiration the role of Spain to bring Catholicism to the newly discovered territories. Their writings manifest the European humanistic spirit of the period characterized by the individualism, the optimism, and the desire to explore new territories and explain what they learned.

These writers, many of whom lacked formal training, attempted to describe a new, unfamiliar and exotic world and to relate their own participation in the conquest and the colonization. They mixed reality and fantasy, and they included strange details and moralizing digressions since their stories were supposed to serve as examples to the reader. Divine intervention in favor of the conquistadors would often appear in their narrative. In Historia verdadera de la conquista de la Nueva Espana (1568) (The True History of the Conquest of Mexico), Bernal Diaz del Castillo provides a testimony of how a soldier thought and acted in such a risky enterprise as was the Conquest.

 

Art of the Conquest 

Most of the art of the conquest dealt with depictions of what the conquistadors came to know in the New World and their impressions of these new lands.  It was documentary in nature rather than aesthetic.  Therefore, the arts would involve pictures of indigenous peoples in their family units, depictions of human sacrifices, fauna, and fruits and vegetables the conquistadors had never seen before.  These would invariably serve the purpose of “illustrating” the new world for those back in Spain.

 One major artist who was able to capture the European imagination of the Americas was the engraver Theodore de Bry (Links to an external site.).  

case study 1

case study 1

 

For this Case Study, you will review the case below on conflict and negotiation and answer the questions that follow.

Case Study:

While much of this chapter has discussed methods for achieving harmonious relationships and getting out of conflicts, it’s also important to remember there are situations in which too little conflict can be a problem. As we noted, in creative problem-solving teams, some level of task conflict early in the process of formulating a solution can be an important stimulus to innovation.

However, the conditions must be right for productive conflict. In particular, individuals must feel psychologically safe in bringing up issues for discussion. If people fear that what they say is going to be held against them, they may be reluctant to speak up or rock the boat. Experts suggest that effective conflicts have three key characteristics: they should (1) speak to what is possible, (2) be compelling, and (3) involve uncertainty.

So how should a manager “pick a fight?” First, ensure that the stakes are sufficient to actually warrant a disruption. Second, focus on the future, and on how to resolve the conflict rather than on whom to blame. Third, tie the conflict to fundamental values. Rather than concentrating on winning or losing, encourage both parties to see how successfully exploring and resolving the conflict will lead to optimal outcomes for all. If managed successfully, some degree of open disagreement can be an important way for companies to manage simmering and potentially destructive conflicts.

Do these principles work in real organizations? The answer is yes. Dropping its old ways of handling scheduling and logistics created a great deal of conflict at Burlington Northern Santa Fe railroad, but applying these principles to managing the conflict helped the railroad adopt a more sophisticated system and recover its competitive position in the transportation industry. Doug Conant, CEO of Campbell Soup, increased functional conflicts in his organization by emphasizing a higher purpose to the organization’s efforts rather than focusing on whose side was winning a conflict. Thus, a dysfunctional conflict environment changed dramatically and the organization was able to move from one of the world’s worst-performing food companies to one that was recognized as a top performer by both the Dow Jones Sustainability Index and Fortune 500 data on employee morale.

  1. How could you ensure sufficient discussion of contentious issues in a work group? How can managers bring unspoken conflicts into the open without making them worse?
  2. How can negotiators utilize conflict management strategies to their advantage so that differences in interests lead not to dysfunctional conflicts but rather to positive integrative solutions?
  3. Can you think of situations in your own life in which silence has worsened a conflict between parties? What might have been done differently to ensure that open communication facilitated collaboration instead?

It is not sufficient to state your opinions alone; you must be able to backup your responses by applying concepts from the text with the case data that supports your findings.  Expected response length is 3 sentences per question.  Please restate the question you are answering in your case study.

Through writing this case study you will be required to demonstrate a knowledge of how to integrate OB concepts with the case data, how to conduct research, and how to properly cite sources using APA formatting guidelines.  You will be responsible for using a minimum of 2 scholarly/peer reviewed sources. Textbooks are not considered a scholarly/peer reviewed source; however, they may still be included as a supplemental