## Deliverable 5 – Einstein’s Physics Compare/Contrast Paper

Deliverable 5 – Einstein’s Physics Compare/Contrast Paper

## Assignment Content

1. Competency

Point out how Einstein’s special and general relativity theories impact modern technology.

Student Success Criteria

View the grading rubric for this deliverable by selecting the “This item is graded with a rubric” link, which is located in the Details & Information pane.

Instructions

In a two-page paper, identify the physics principles contained within the following scenario. Explain how these principals connect to Einstein’s theory of relativity or in modern applications in physics. If you use a GPS option on your car or a mobile device, you are using Einstein’s theory of relativity. Finally, provide another example from your own experience, then compare and contrast your scenario to the provided example below.

Scenario

Mandy took a trip to Rome, Italy. She gazed out over the open ocean 20,000 feet below as her airplane began its descent to her final destination of Rome. It had been a long flight from New York to Rome, but as she stretched, and her bones creaked as though she was old, she knew that in fact, she was a tiny bit younger than her compatriots back home, thanks to traveling at hundreds of miles per hour. In fact, time for her was running slowly compared to her friends in New York for two reasons: the speed at which she had traveled and the height of the airplane above the Earth. Neither, though, were noticeable.

Silicon is the most abutment element in the earth’s crust and is molten at about 1400c where salts melt at 800c. Molten  silicon thermal energy storage offer higher storage temperatures than  that of salts. ‘Silicon has unique properties that confer the ability to  store more than 1 MWh of energy in a cubic meter, ten times more than  using salts.’  A research that has been done by MIT ‘ says that if you  use two 10 meter high storage tanks of molten silicon you would be able  to power 100000 households. In addition the silicon can hold up to 100  times more energy per unit than conventional solar.

ScienceDaily. (2016, October 7). Innovative molten silicon-based energy storage system. ScienceDaily. Retrieved September 7, 2022, from https://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2016/10/161007100750.htmLinks to an external site.

Molten salts are used in heat transfers fluid and thermal energy  storage in solar power plants.  This is solar power collected through  mirrors and lenses that are laid out or set up in high sun light  concentrated areas. Molten salts are stored into hot storage tanks where  it can be kept for several days and then when it is needed it will be  turned into electricity. The salts are stored at temps around 565 c and  then once they are cooled to 290c it will be moved around for further  cold storage and reuse.

Ltd., U. D. M. I. P. (2022, July 11). Molten salt thermal energy storage market is likely to showcase a robust growth by 2027: CAGR: ~6%: Univdatos market insights.  Molten Salt Thermal Energy Storage Market is likely to showcase a  robust growth by 2027|CAGR: ~6%| UnivDatos Market Insights. Retrieved  September 7, 2022, from  https://www.prnewswire.com/in/news-releases/molten-salt-thermal-energy-storage-market-is-likely-to-showcase-a-robust-growth-by-2027-cagr-6-univdatos-market-insights-801528526.html

Molten salt thermal energy storage systems  are used during times when energy is not needed. The liquid salt is  stored as thermal energy in highly insulated tanks at a temperature of  300-500 degrees Celsius, depending on the type of salt being stored.  These systems most commonly utilize sodium nitrate and/or potassium  nitrate due to their non-corrosive nature.

When energy is needed, the salt is pumped  into a steam generator where the hot salt boils water. The steam  produced from the boiling water turns a turbine generator, which  produces energy. After the salt cools, it is pumped back into the  storage system where it is reheated to prepare for another use (Dodaro,  2015).

In my opinion, using molten salt as a form  of alternative energy production/storage seems like a good option if we  can create more plants. Right now, there are very few molten salt  plants; therefore, the process does not create much energy. “The largest  molten salt solar plant, located in United States, can produce 110  Megawatt of electricity. While the largest solar power plant can produce  more than 2,000 Megawatt of energy, almost a third of the largest coal  power plant with 6,720 Megawatt” (sataksig, 2020). Molten nitrate salt  has a volumetric heat capacity of around 3,000

. That is roughly 1,000

more than similar synthetic heat transfer processes.

In addition, these salts do not pose  hardly any hazard to the plant they are in or the surrounding areas. The  only precaution that must be taken is to keep the salt away from open  flames, sparks, or any sources of ignition as the salt will release  oxygen when they break down, providing more fuel for a fire (McMullen,  2016).

References:

Molten Salt Storage. (n.d.). Large.stanford.edu. http://large.stanford.edu/courses/2015/ph240/dodaro2/Links to an external site.

Using Molten Salts as a Heat Transfer Fluid and Thermal-Storage Medium | 2016-10-26 | Process Heating. (n.d.). Www.process-Heating.comLinks to an external site.. Retrieved September 7, 2022, from https://www.process-heating.com/articles/91918-using-molten-salts-as-a-heat-transfer-fluid-and-thermal-storage-medium#:~:text=Salts%20also%20have%20relatively%20high%20latent%20heat%20capacityLinks to an external site.

‌ sataksig. (2020, December 1). What Is Molten Salt Power Plant? Here We Explain This Innovation. Earth Buddies. https://earthbuddies.net/molten-salt/#:~:text=The%20largest%20molten%20salt%20solar%20plant%2C%20located%20in

## Deliverable 3 – Classical Physics Compare/Contrast Paper

Deliverable 3 – Classical Physics Compare/Contrast Paper

## Assignment Content

1. Competency

Explore the physical principles of classical physics.

Student Success Criteria

View the grading rubric for this deliverable by selecting the “This item is graded with a rubric” link, which is located in the Details & Information pane.

Instructions

In a two-page paper, identify the classical physics principles contained within the following scenario. Explain how these principals connect to work done by Galileo or Newton. Finally, consider the different fields in which Galileo and Newton did research, and give an example of one of these fields in use in your life. For instance, Newton developed the field of optics. If you wear glasses or contact lenses, you are using Newton’s physical optics theories every day. Aside from glasses or contacts, how do the theories of Newton or Galileo affect you in your daily life?

Scenario

Mandy took a trip to Rome, Italy. She gazed out over the open ocean 20,000 feet below as her airplane began its descent to her final destination. She could watch the Sun setting in the west. Over the Eastern horizon peeked a full moon, just rising, displaying its cratered face. As the plane neared the ground, Mandy could not help but think that she was in a giant metal object hurtling through the sky. Without the specific shape of its wings, the plane would fall to the ground no differently than a large metal projectile.

## Deliverable 7 – Vlog Presentation

Deliverable 7 – Vlog Presentation

## Assignment Content

1. Competency

When possible, synthesize content from the individual course modules. Your content should expand, elaborate, and evolve from the activities in the individual modules, and coalesce to present a cohesive message to the viewer.

Student Success Criteria

View the grading rubric for this deliverable by selecting the “This item is graded with a rubric” link, which is located in the Details & Information pane.

Instructions

Using any slide share or movie making software, you can utilize information gathered throughout the course to create a visual travel log. This multi-media presentation will include images, video, and voice over dialogue consisting of a mix of research and original content that demonstrates your analysis of course concepts. The movie will be accompanied by a paper that supplies the dialogue for the visuals of your film.

You may use examples of physics principles in use in everyday life that you previously gave as examples in Modules 01-06, but you cannot reuse the same wording as used in previous modules. For example, if you had mentioned using glasses for Module 03, you can once again bring up that concept here, but you cannot read from your Module 03 submission paper.

Requirements

• Three-minute video in MPEG-4 format.
• Original voice over (written) dialogue and accompanying paper.
• Images that help “tell your story.”
• 30 seconds of original video connecting your experience to your topic.
• Narrative concept

Imagine you are a writer for Physics Today (or insert whatever physics pop journal you wish), and you are to create a travel vlog for your an overseas trip. In your presentation, your editor wants you to include all relative physics concepts that you encounter in your journey.

For the heart of the presentation, your editor has deemed it essential to address the following core issues and questions:

• Identify physics principles in various real-world examples.
• Identify the use of the scientific method in a modern physical problem.
• Identify the use of classical physics principles in relation to a real life situation.
• Identify physics principles in various real-world examples, and connect to your own experience.
• Identify physics principles in various real-world examples and modern technology.
• Identify a technology that uses quantum mechanics, and connect to your own experience.

## You will examine applications of electricity and related concepts

You will examine applications of electricity and related concepts

What are the applications of superconductivity? Superconductivity was discovered early in the 20th century. It allows current to flow in certain materials without electrical resistance when the material’s temperature is lowered to extreme temperatures.

This week, you will examine applications of electricity and related concepts. Electricity is fundamental to our increasingly technology-based society.  The technology based on these concepts can be used for applications as diverse as heating food to transportation to communication at long distances.

Depending on the topic you are assigned, you will research applications related to electric circuits, magnetism, and electromagnetic radiation.

Before you begin, be sure to review the following resource:

https://youtu.be/lwfJPc-rSXw

You  are spending a weekend onboard the International Space Station and  you’ve been asked to produce a video of a weightlessness demonstration.   However, are you truly weightless?  Prepare a response to this question  in terms of mass, acceleration to gravity, and weight.  Feel free to  embellish your account of values but you will need to look up the  accelerations due to gravity on Earth (surface) to support your account.

We are not ever truly weightless that sensation is the result of  falling. Weight is the force of gravity exerted on an object. Mass is  the measure of how much an object can resist velocity. Acceleration to  gravity is the value assigned to an object that is free-falling towards  earth. If you were to jump out of a plane and free fall that would  create the feeling of weightless. Riding rollercoasters can give the  feeling of weightlessness when it goes straight down that is part of the  thrill. When in an elevator and it goes it gives the feeling of  weightlessness even though the elevator still has the same weight as it  goes up.

The acceleration of gravity. The Physics Classroom. (n.d.).  Retrieved September 1, 2022, from  https://www.physicsclassroom.com/class/1DKin/Lesson-5/Acceleration-of-Gravity

Admin. (2022, May 31). Weightlessness – explanation, Elevator Experiment, faqs.  BYJUS. Retrieved September 1, 2022, from  https://byjus.com/physics/weightlessness/#:~:text=Weightlessness%20is%20a%20sensation%20experienced,the%20state%20of%20free%20fall.

Cain, F. (2015, February 17). Are astronauts really weightless? Phys.org. Retrieved September 1, 2022, from https://phys.org/news/2015-02-astronauts-weightless.html

You’ve been selected to join the crew of  an upcoming mission to the Moon.  Discuss any changes that will occur as  you make the voyage in terms of mass, acceleration due to gravity, and  weight. Feel free to embellish your account of values but you will need  to look up the accelerations due to gravity on Earth (surface) and the  Moon (surface) to support your account.

On this voyage there will be a change in  my weight, my weight will decrease because of the moon’s gravity being  16.6% relative to earth’s gravity. Even though my weight changes, my  mass will remain the same.

The acceleration of gravity on earth is 9.8m/s2

g=GM/r2

g=6.673×1011×6×1024/(6)2

g=9.8m/s2

The acceleration of gravity on the moon is 1.625m/s2

g=GM/r2

g=6.673×10^11×7.342×10^22/(1.74×106)2

g=1.625m/s^2

My weight on earth is 176lbs, my weight on the moon is 29.04lbs.

To find my weight I used the following equation

Weight = Mass x moons gravity

w=176×0.165

w=29.04lbs

Definitions:

Mass- a measure of how much matter an object contains.

Weight- a measure of the force of gravity on an object.

Formula for weight

w=mg

Acceleration due to Gravity- the acceleration for any object moving under the sole influence of gravity

Formula for acceleration due to gravity

g=GM/r^2

References:

Libretexts. (2022, March 7). 5.5: Mass and weight. Physics LibreTexts. Retrieved August 31, 2022, from https://phys.libretexts.org/Bookshelves/University_Physics/Book%3A_University_Physics_(OpenStax)/Book%3A_University_Physics_I_-_Mechanics_Sound_Oscillations_and_Waves_(OpenStax)/05%3A_Newton’s_Laws_of_Motion/5.05%3A_Mass_and_Weight (Links to an external site.)

Rumble, A. (2021, April 27). How to calculate your weight on the Moon. Sciencing. Retrieved August 31, 2022, from https://sciencing.com/calculate-weight-moon-7812905.html (Links to an external site.)

## You will explore the connectivity between the concepts of scalars and vectors and the quantities they model.

You will explore the connectivity between the concepts of scalars and vectors and the quantities they model.

You are driving a car down a straight highway when you come upon a sudden accident. You slam on your brake to avoid hitting the car in front of you. Describe any changes in the motion of your car in terms of velocity and acceleration. Feel free to embellish your account of values of your own choosing.

• In addition to defining the concepts,  you must illustrate them by applying them to an example.  Your example must contain substantive details.
• Support the information presented in your initial post with appropriate references.

There are two types of numeric quantities in physics: vectors and scalars. Understanding these two concepts allow you to more successfully describe and understand physical phenomena.

A scalar quantity is a magnitude that describes a measurement or amount. For example, the temperature is a scalar quantity. Temperature is a measurement of the relative hotness or coldness of an object and it doesn’t have a directional dependence. Speed is another example of a scalar quantity as a measurement of how fast an object is moving.

Velocity is a vector composed of both speed and direction (example: car moving 30 mph towards the East). In this course, we will not explore vector algebra. Instead, we will stick with a one-dimensional analysis where the direction is indicated by either (+) or (-). Acceleration is also a vector because it is defined as the time rate of change in velocity. Since velocity is speed and direction, that means acceleration can be a change in speed, a change in direction, or both changes in speed and direction relative to time.

Force is also a vector quantity. Newton’s second law defines force as the product of mass (a scalar) and acceleration (a vector) so the result is a force vector. By definition, a force causes objects to accelerate, so this means that when a force is applied the acceleration can be a change in speed, a change in direction, or a change in both speed and direction.

The acceleration due to gravity at the Earth’s surface is 9.8 m/s^2. It is a vector that points towards the center of the Earth. Weight is a force defined as the product of mass and acceleration due to gravity. That makes weight a vector as well.

Molten salt thermal energy storage systems  are used during times when energy is not needed. The liquid salt is  stored as thermal energy in highly insulated tanks at a temperature of  300-500 degrees Celsius, depending on the type of salt being stored.  These systems most commonly utilize sodium nitrate and/or potassium  nitrate due to their non-corrosive nature.

When energy is needed, the salt is pumped  into a steam generator where the hot salt boils water. The steam  produced from the boiling water turns a turbine generator, which  produces energy. After the salt cools, it is pumped back into the  storage system where it is reheated to prepare for another use (Dodaro,  2015).

In my opinion, using molten salt as a form  of alternative energy production/storage seems like a good option if we  can create more plants. Right now, there are very few molten salt  plants; therefore, the process does not create much energy. “The largest  molten salt solar plant, located in United States, can produce 110  Megawatt of electricity. While the largest solar power plant can produce  more than 2,000 Megawatt of energy, almost a third of the largest coal  power plant with 6,720 Megawatt” (sataksig, 2020). Molten nitrate salt  has a volumetric heat capacity of around 3,000

. That is roughly 1,000

more than similar synthetic heat transfer processes.

In addition, these salts do not pose  hardly any hazard to the plant they are in or the surrounding areas. The  only precaution that must be taken is to keep the salt away from open  flames, sparks, or any sources of ignition as the salt will release  oxygen when they break down, providing more fuel for a fire (McMullen,  2016).

References:

Molten Salt Storage. (n.d.). Large.stanford.edu. http://large.stanford.edu/courses/2015/ph240/dodaro2/Links to an external site.

Using Molten Salts as a Heat Transfer Fluid and Thermal-Storage Medium | 2016-10-26 | Process Heating. (n.d.). Www.process-Heating.comLinks to an external site.. Retrieved September 7, 2022, from https://www.process-heating.com/articles/91918-using-molten-salts-as-a-heat-transfer-fluid-and-thermal-storage-medium#:~:text=Salts%20also%20have%20relatively%20high%20latent%20heat%20capacityLinks to an external site.

‌ sataksig. (2020, December 1). What Is Molten Salt Power Plant? Here We Explain This Innovation. Earth Buddies. https://earthbuddies.net/molten-salt/#:~:text=The%20largest%20molten%20salt%20solar%20plant%2C%20located%20in