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I need help answering three worksheets. Answers are all found in the textbook.

I need help answering three worksheets. Answers are all found in the textbook.

HTH-350

T1 and T2 Reading Questions

Ensure that you properly cite references for each question when answering the questions on this worksheet.

*******(I copied and pasted all of these answers they must all be paraphrased please)************

1 According to McGrath, what is the purpose and
place of historical theology?

.According to McGrath, the purpose and place of Historical theology is that” historical theology is the branch of theological inquiry which aims to explore the historical development of Christian doctrines and identify the factors which were influential in their formulation and adoption. Historical theology therefore has direct and close links with the disciplines of church history and systematic theology, despite differing from them both. Church history and historical theology relate to each other in a positive and symbiotic manner. Historical theology is the branch of theology which aims to explore the historical situations within which ideas develop or are specifically formulated. It aims to lay bare the connection between context and theology. Historical theology does more than simply provide the background material to modern theological statements. It indicates the extent to which theological formulations are conditioned by the environment in which they emerge.” (McGrath, 2013 p 8,9)

McGrath, A. E. (2013) Historical Theology: An introduction to the history of Christian thought. (Second Edition) Available from http://lc.gcumedia.com/hth350/historical-theology-an-introduction-to-history-of -christian-thought_ebook_2e.php

2. According to Dr. Nathan Busenitz, what is
historical theology? Why is the study of it (and church history) important? He
gives several reasons..

According to Dr. Nathan Busenitz, “church history is a collection of great biographies of how the Lord worked in people’s lives.”

“1 The study of church history is important because most Christians are clueless when it comes to understanding the history of the church. Most Christians have really no concept of the flow or the details of church history

2.Because God is at work in history conversely history is a testimony to God’s sovereign province.

3.Because Christ said that He would build His church, so the study of church history is to watch his promise unfold.

4.Because church history is our history as members of the Body of Christ.

5.Because the truth has been preserved and passed down through history.

6.Because just as we are encouraged by the history of truth we are also warned by the history of error.

7.Because we have much to learn from those who walk with God.

8.In the same way that we can learn much from those who have been faithful, we can also learn much from those who have failed at various points.

9.Because being a faithful apologist often includes being a good historian.

10.Because history helps twenty-first century pastors have a right perspective about their own place in the church age.”

The Master’s Seminary. (2012, September 10). Historical Theology I, Why study church history? Retrieved from https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=BeMcRdXdwkc

3. How might historical theology benefit someone in
the ministry?

The study of historical theology can help someone in the ministry. Many, of the theologians that we study in this class are pastors who have greatly impressed the method that church is attained. This class will aid the student in seeing the connection with the past. It also aids the student in discovering tangible illustrations that will help in preaching, ministry and daily life. (Lecture 1) And, historical theology aids present-day pastors to have a correct view of their own position in the church age. (The Master’s Seminary) Historical theology is a significant resource to students of church history. It provides the student with a comprehension of the type of ideas that influenced the church at crucial points of history.” (McGrath, 2013)

Lecture 1 (2016). HTH-350: Intro to Historical Theology in the Early Church. Phoenix, AZ: Grand Canyon University.

The Master’s Seminary. (2012, September 10). Historical theology I, Why study church history? Retrieved from https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=BeMcRdXdwkc

McGrath, A. E. (2013) Historical Theology: An introduction to the history of Christian thought. (Second Edition) Available from http://lc.gcumedia.com/hth350/historical-theology-an-introduction-to-history-of -christian-thought_ebook_2e.php

4. Compare and contrast historical theology from
biblical studies, systematic theology, and church history.

The relationship between biblical study and historical theology is in order to get a precise Biblical meaning, a basis of historical theology is required. Historical theology is an offshoot of theological study that searches to find the historical, chronological progression of theological concepts. (Lecture 1, 2016) It attempts to examine the historical progression of Christian doctrines and attempts to find the components that impact their fabrication and adoption. Biblical study is the survey of God’s Word that demonstrates the unfurling of God’s revelation and its development throughout history. It centers on a section of scripture, in a specific period of time, for example, the theology of the unified kingdom period or biblical theology may examine a specific subject or motif in the Bible, for example the survey of “the remnant.” (www. gotquestions.org) Consequently, Historical theology has precise and immediate connections to the study of systematic theology and church history yet having differences with them both.” (McGrath, 1994) “Systematic theology attempts to deliver a current account of the major themes of the Christian faith. A comprehension of the historical progression of that doctrine is vital to its current restatement. Therefore, Historical theology has a dual role which is pedagogic and critical, attempting to instruct systematic theologians concerning past thought (and why!), and attempting to identify the factors that comprise some form of necessary restatement. (McGrath, 1994)

McGrath, A. E. (2013) Historical Theology: An introduction to the history of Christian thought. (Second Edition) Available from http://lc.gcumedia.com/hth350/historical-theology-an-introduction-to-history-of -christian-thought_ebook_2e.php

Lecture 1 (2016). HTH-350: Intro to Historical Theology in the Early Church. Phoenix, AZ: Grand Canyon University.

https://www.gotquestions.org/biblical-theology.htm…

5. According to McGrath, why is patristic theology
difficult to approach? What is the historical background of patristic theology?

The patristic theology is difficult to approach because:

1. The arguments of the period seemed irrelevant to the contemporary world. Despite being viewed as extremely important for its time, the modern reader could not sympathize with its difficult issues and could not understand why they drew such observation.

2. Many of the patristic arguments are based on philosophical issue and are only logical if the reader is familiar with the philosophical arguments of the time – such as the different schools of Platonism which circulated throughout the Mediterranean world period. This strangeness of philosophical ideas acted as another obstacle to its study, which made it difficult for beginning theological students to comprehend the patristic arguments and debates.

3. The patristic period is represented by tremendous differences in doctrine.

4. The period had significant discord, for both linguistic and political reasons, between the eastern Greek-speaking and the western Latin-speaking church. (McGrath)

What is the
historical background of patristic theology?

McGrath, A. E. (2013) Historical Theology: An introduction to the history of Christian thought. (Second Edition) Available from http://lc.gcumedia.com/hth350/historical-theology-an-introduction-to-history-of -christian-thought_ebook_2e.php/Chapter 2

6. According to McGrath, what was the extent of the New Testament canon? What

was the role of tradition during the patristic age?

“According to McGrath, the extent of the New Testament canon was by the time of Irenaeus, it generally accepted that there were four gospels; by the late second century, there was a consensus that the gospels, Acts, and letters had the status of inspired Scripture. Thus, Clement of Alexandria recognized four gospels, the Acts, 14 letters of Paul (the letter to the Hebrews being regarded as Pauline), and Revelation. Tertullian declared that alongside the “law and the prophets” were the “evangelical and apostolic writings” (evangelicae et apostolicae litterae), which were both to be regarded as authoritative within the church. Gradually, agreement was reached on the list of books that were recognized as inspired Scripture, and the order in which they were to be arranged. In 367, Athanasius circulated his thirty-ninth Festal Letter, which identifies the 27 books of the New Testament, as we now know it, as being canonical. Debate centered especially on a number of books. The western church had hesitations about including Hebrews, in that it was not specifically attributed to an apostle; the eastern church had reservations about Revelation. Four of the smaller books (2 Peter, 2 and 3 John, and Jude) were often omitted from early lists of New Testament writings.” Tradition was thus seen as a legacy from the Apostles, by which the church was guided and directed toward a correct interpretation of Scripture. It was not seen as a “secret source of revelation” in addition to Scripture, an idea that Irenaeus dismissed as “Gnostic.” Rather, it was seen as a means of ensuring that the church remained faithful to the teaching of the Apostles, instead of adopting idiosyncratic interpretations of Scripture.”(McGrath, 2013)

McGrath, A. E. (2013) Historical Theology: An introduction to the history of Christian thought. (Second Edition) Available from http://lc.gcumedia.com/hth350/historical-theology-an-introduction-to-history-of -christian-thought_ebook_2e.php/Chapter 2

7. Why does Clement appeal to the myth of the Phoenix? What is Clement’s tone throughout his letter?

“Clement appeals to the myth of the Phoenix as an argument for the resurrection of Christ. Clement points not only to the types in nature, the changes of the seasons and of day and night, but also to the miraculous bird, the phoenix in Arabia, which regenerates itself every five hundred years. When the phoenix—so runs the fable—approaches death, it makes itself a nest of frankincense, myrrh, and other spices; from its decaying flesh a winged worm arises, which, when it becomes strong, carries the reproductive nest from Arabia to Heliopolis in Egypt, and there flying down by day, in the sight of all, it lays it, with the bones of its predecessors, upon the altar of the sun. And this takes place, according to the reckoning of the priests, every five hundred years.”( https://bltnotjustasandwich.com/2012/09/19/the-clements-and-the-literal-phoenixes/)

“Do we then deem it any great and wonderful thing for the Maker of all things to raise up again those who have piously served Him in the assurance of a good faith, when even by a bird He shows us the mightiness of His power to fulfil His promise? For [the Scripture] says in a certain place, “You shall raise me up, and I shall confess to You;” and again, “I laid down, and slept; I awaked, because You are with me;” and again, Job 29 says, “you shall raise up this flesh of mine, which has suffered all these things.”” (Letter of Clement to the Corinthians, Chapter 26)

As it turns out, the tale of the phoenix is actually found in the Bible’s oldest book – the book of Job. Job 29:18 reads, “Then I said: ‘I shall die with my nest, and I shall multiply my days as the phoenix.’” Clement’s idea that the phoenix dies and returnshas its origin here. Clement’s tone is one of telling of natural history.

https://bltnotjustasandwich.com/2012/09/19/the-clements-and-the-literal-phoenixes/

http://earlychurch.com/Clement%20of%20Rome.php

Letter of Clement to the Corinthians, Chapter 25,26, http://www.earlychristianwritings.com/text/1clement-roberts.html

8. Explain the message of the Didache. Compare and
contrast it against Clement

“ One of the
apostolic fathers, whose identity is unknown, wrote a document entitled, The Teaching
of the (Twelve) Apostles, or as it is commonly referred to today—The Didache.
The Didache contained instructions for Christian groups; and its statement of
belief may be the first written catechism. It has four parts: the first is the
“Two Ways, the Way of Life and the Way of Death;” the second explains how to
perform rituals such as baptism, fasting, and
Communion; the third covers ministry and how to deal with traveling teachers;
the
fourth part is a reminder that Jesus is coming again, with quotations from
several New Testament passages which exhort Christians to live godly lives and
prepare for “that day.”” The Didache compares to The Letter of Clement to the
Corinthians in that it contains instructions for Christian living. The Letter
of Clement to the Corinthians is different than the Didache is that it does not
contain instructions on the way of death, information on how to perform rituals
such as baptism, fasting, and Communion, it does not contain instructions on
how to deal with traveling teachers and Clement speaks of the resurrection but
does not mention Jesus coming again.

https://christianhistoryinstitute.org/study/module/didache

Letter of
Clement to the Corinthians, http://www.earlychristianwritings.com/text/1clement-roberts.html

9. According to Ignatius, why is the bishop so
important? What does he have to do

with church order?

According to Ignatius, the bishop is so important because as he says in Chapter XIII of The Epistle of Ignatius to the Trallians, “Fare ye well in Jesus Christ, while ye continue subject to the bishop, as to the command [of God], and in like manner to the presbytery.” So, Ignatius was equating following the bishop as being the same as submitting to the command of God.( http://www.earlychristianwritings)

Ignatius has to do with the church order because “St. Ignatius composed seven epistles and in each of these seven letters we can learn something about the nature and structure of the Church at the beginning of the second century, and especially about the structure and ground for the leadership of the Church.”( http://www.calledtocommunion.com)is so important

http://www.calledtocommunion.com/2010/10/st-ignatius-of-antioch-on-the-church/

http://www.earlychristianwritings.com/text/ignatius-trallians-longer.html

10 There are several oddities to the Gospel of
Peter. Name at least two unusual details in the story. Why do you think the
story sounds so strange?

“Two unusual details in the Gospel of Peter are first, that it ends, rather strangely, with a second “empty tomb” story in which Mary Magdalene and her friends visit the grave and flee in fear, and the subsequent scattering of Jesus’ followers back to Galilee. There it breaks off. Second, the Gospel of Peter tells of how the sealed tomb of Jesus is dramatically opened by two men who descend from heaven in a blinding light on Saturday night, not Sunday morning. The stone is rolled back and while the guards watch in astonishment the two go into the tomb and lead out a third, namely Jesus, with a walking-talking cross following them. I think the reason that the story sounds so strange is that it is not a complete gospel but only a fragment.”

Examples are:

Matthew :27 And there followed him a great company of people, and of women, which also bewailed and lamented him.

28 But Jesus turning unto them said, Daughters of Jerusalem, weep not for me, but weep for yourselves, and for your children.

29 For, behold, the days are coming, in the which they shall say, Blessed are the barren, and the wombs that never bare, and the paps which never gave suck.

30 Then shall they begin to say to the mountains, Fall on us; and to the hills, Cover us.

31 For if they do these things in a green tree, what shall be done in the dry?

http://www.earlychristianwritings.com/text/gospelpeter.html

11. What is Trajan’s preferred policy when dealing
with the Christians?

Trajan’s preferred policy when dealing with Christians is explained in his words: “My dear Pliny, in sifting the cases of those who had been denounced to you as Christians. For it is not possible to lay down any general rule to serve as a kind of fixed standard. They are not to be sought out; if they are denounced and proved guilty, they are to be punished, with this reservation, that whoever denies that he is a Christian and really proves it–that is, by worshiping our gods–even though he was under suspicion in the past, shall obtain pardon through repentance. But anonymously posted accusations ought to have no place in any prosecution. For this is both a dangerous kind of precedent and out of keeping with the spirit of our age.”

http://www.earlychristianwritings.com/text/pliny.html

McGrath, A. E. (2013) Historical Theology: An introduction to the history of Christian thought. (Second Edition) Available from http://lc.gcumedia.com/hth350/historical-theology-an-introduction-to-history-of -christian-thought_ebook_2e.php/Chapter 2/The Patristic Period, c.100–451, Case Studies.

http://www.monachos.net/conversation/topic/543-logos-spermatikos

12.What does Justin Martyr think of Plato? Does he seem to have a positive impression? Or a negative one?

“Justin Martyr, amongst the most important of the second-century Apologists, was especially concerned to demonstrate that the Christian faith brought to fruition the insights of both classical Greek philosophy and Judaism. Of particular interest is the Logos-Christology that Justin develops, in which he exploits the apologetic potential of the idea of the “Logos,” current in both Stoicism and the Middle Platonism of the period. The Logos (logos is a Greek term usually translated as “word” – e.g., as it is found at John 1: 14) is to be thought of as the ultimate source of all human knowledge. The one and the same Logos is known by both Christian believers and pagan philosophers; the latter, however, only have partial access to it, whereas Christians have full access to it, on account of its manifestation in Christ. Justin allows that pre-Christian secular philosophers, such as Heraclitus or Socrates, thus, had partial access to the truth, on account of the manner in which the Logos is present in the world. An idea of especial importance in this context is that of the logos spermatikos, which appears to derive from Middle Platonism. St. Justin struggled to construct a bridge from Greek philosophy to Christianity (or from Christianity to Greek philosophy). He uses the term to express his conviction that God has planted in each individual person a seed (SPERMATIKOS) of His own divinity (LOGOS) He aims to prove that the LOGOS (Jesus Christ) whom Christianity worships, is the same LOGOS of whom the Greek Philosophers were dependent upon. Justin is therefore able to argue that Christianity builds upon and fulfills the hints and anticipations of God’s revelation which is to be had through pagan philosophy. Justin appears to have a positive impression of Plato since he uses Platonic philosophy for the basis of the logos spermatikos.” (McGrath, 2013)

McGrath, A. E. (2013) Historical Theology: An introduction to the history of Christian thought. (Second Edition) Available from http://lc.gcumedia.com/hth350/historical-theology-an-introduction-to-history-of -christian-thought_ebook_2e.php/Chapter 2/The Patristic Period, c.100–451, Case Studies.

http://www.monachos.net/conversation/topic/543-logos-spermatikos/

13 Who was Arius and what did he argue? Why is he
important to the development of the Trinity?

Arius (c.250–c.336) was a Christian presbyter and ascetic of Berber origin, and priest in Baucalis, in Alexandria, Egypt. (Wikipedia) Arius was the originator of Arianism, a form of Christology which argued that it refused to concede the full divinity of Christ. He is important to the development of the Trinity because Arius emphasizes the self-subsistence of God. Wherein God is the one and only source of all created things; nothing exists which does not ultimately derive from God. This view of God, which many commentators have suggested is due more to Hellenistic philosophy than to Christian theology, is important to the development of the Trinity because it clearly raises the question of the relation of the Father to the Son.

McGrath, A. E. (2013) Historical Theology: An introduction to the history of Christian thought. (Second Edition) Available from http://lc.gcumedia.com/hth350/historical-theology-an-introduction-to-history-of -christian-thought_ebook_2e.php/Chapter 2/ The Patristic Period, c.100–451, Case Studies.

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Arius

14 Why is the Church important, according to
Irenaeus? Who is Jesus? How do you think Irenaeus would explain the doctrine of
the Trinity?

“The Church is important to Irenaeus because in the case of the Christian church, the immediate and subsequent successors to the apostles are known and can be named. Irenaeus sees the bishops as visible embodiments of the institutional and doctrinal continuity between the apostles and the contemporary church. The apostles chose to entrust their teaching to named successors within the church. According to Irenaeus, the high point in salvation history is the advent of Jesus. For Irenaeus, the Incarnation of Christ was intended by God before he determined that humanity would be created. I think Irenaeus would explain the doctrine of the Trinity as a triune nature of God. Here with the basic elements of the doctrine of the Trinity. Each having a distinct role of each member of the Godhead and its relationship to all of humanity.”

McGrath, A. E. (2013) Historical Theology: An introduction to the history of Christian thought. (Second Edition) Available from http://lc.gcumedia.com/hth350/historical-theology-an-introduction-to-history-of -christian-thought_ebook_2e.php/ Chapter 2/ The Patristic Period, c.100–451, Case Studies.

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Irenaeus

15 According to McGrath, how is the doctrine of the
Trinity developed through the patristic era?

According to McGrath, “in the patristic era, the main thrust of the Trinitarian debates was the manner in which the Trinity was to be understood, rather than its fundamental validity. Two quite distinct approaches gradually emerged, one associated with the eastern, and the other with the western, churches. The eastern position, which continues to be of major importance within the Greek and Russian Orthodox churches of today, was developed especially by a group of three writers, based in modern-day Turkey. Basil of Caesarea (c.330–79), Gregory of Nazianzus (329–89), and Gregory of Nyssa (c.330–c.395), known as the Cappadocian fathers, began their reflections on the Trinity by considering the different ways in which the Father, Son, and Spirit are experienced. In general, eastern theology tended to emphasize the distinct individuality of the three persons or hypostases and safeguard their unity by stressing the fact that both the Son and the Spirit derived from the Father. The relation between the persons or hypostases is ontological, grounded in what those persons are. Thus, the relation of the Son to the Father is defined in terms of “being begotten” and “sonship.” The western position, especially associated with Augustine of Hippo, began from the unity of God, and proceeded to explore the implications of the love of God for our understanding of the nature of the Godhead. The western approach, however, was more marked by its tendency to begin from the unity of God, especially in the work of revelation and redemption, and to interpret the relation of the three persons in terms of their mutual fellowship.”

McGrath, A. E. (2013) Historical Theology: An introduction to the history of Christian thought. (Second Edition) Available from http://lc.gcumedia.com/hth350/historical-theology-an-introduction-to-history-of -christian-thought_ebook_2e.php/Chapter 2/ The Patristic Period, c.100–451, Case Studies.

16.Explain Origen’s specific understanding of the Trinity? How is Jesus Christ, the Son of God, related to the one God?

“Origen’s understanding of the trinity in the field of Christology, was that Origen established a tradition of distinguishing between the full divinity of the Father and a lesser divinity of the Son. It is in the writings of Origen that the Logos-Christology appears to find its fullest development. In the Incarnation, the human soul of Christ is united with the Logos. On account of the closeness of this union, Christ’s human soul comes to share in the properties of the Logos. Nevertheless, Origen insists that, although both the Logos and Father are coeternal, the Logos is subordinate to the Father.”

McGrath, A. E. (2013) Historical Theology: An introduction to the history of Christian thought. (Second Edition) Available from http://lc.gcumedia.com/hth350/historical-theology-an-introduction-to-history-of -christian-thought_ebook_2e.php/Chapter 2/The Patristic Period, c.100–451, Case Studies.)

17.Compare and contrast Tertullian and Origen on the Trinity. Then, compare each theologian’s position with the Niceno-Constantinoplitan Creed (381). Use two additional sources in your comparison.

“Tertullian defended the unity of the Old and New Testaments against Marcion, who had argued that they related to different gods. In doing so, he laid the foundations for a doctrine of the Trinity. “Tertullian’s trinity is not a triune God, but rather a triad or group of three, with God as the founding member.” (Wikipedia) Tertullian believes that all real things are material. God is a spirit, but a spirit is a material thing made out of a finer sort of matter. At the beginning, God is alone, though he has his own reason within him. Then, when it is time to create, he brings the Son into existence, using but not losing a portion of his spiritual matter. Then the Son, using a portion of the divine matter shared with him, brings into existence the Spirit. And the two of them are God’s instruments, his agents, in the creation and governance of the cosmos. The Son, on this theory, is not God himself, nor is he divine in the same sense that the Father is. Rather, the Son is “divine” in that he is made of a portion of the matter that the Father is composed of. This makes them “one substance” or not different as to essence. But the Son isn’t the same god as the Father, though he can, because of what he’s made of, be called “God”. Nor is there any tripersonal God here, but only a tripersonal portion of matter – that smallest portion shared by all three. The one God is sharing a portion of his stuff with another, by causing another to exist out of it, and then this other turns around and does likewise, sharing some of this matter with a third. Tertullian argues that although the above process results in two more who can be called “God”, it does not introduce two more gods – not gods in the sense that Yahweh is a god. There is still, as there can only be, one ultimate source of all else, the Father. Tertullian strongly emphasizes that these are truly three; but none of the three is identical to any other. They are “undivided” in the sense that the Father, in sharing some of his matter, never loses any; rather, that matter comes to simultaneously compose more than one being.” (https://plato.stanford.edu) “Origen’s understanding of the trinity in the field of Christology, was that Origen established a tradition of distinguishing between the full divinity of the Father and a lesser divinity of the Son. It is in the writings of Origen that the Logos-Christology appears to find its fullest development. In the Incarnation, the human soul of Christ is united with the Logos. On account of the closeness of this union, Christ’s human soul comes to share in the properties of the Logos. Nevertheless, Origen insists that, although both the Logos and Father are coeternal, the Logos is subordinate to the Father.” (McGrath, 2013) “Tertullian’s argument is consistent with the viewpoint of the Nico-Constantinopolitan creed which includes the terms “God from God” that these are truly three; none of the three is identical to any other. And, they are “undivided” in the sense that the Father, in sharing some of his matter, never loses any; rather, that matter comes to simultaneously compose more than one being, “being of one substance with the Father.” (https://plato.stanford.edu) Origen’s argument is not consistent with the Nico-Constantinopolitan creed because he distinguished between the full divinity of the Father and a lesser divinity of the Son.” (McGrath, 2013)

McGrath, A. E. (2013) Historical Theology: An introduction to the history of Christian thought. (Second Edition) Available from http://lc.gcumedia.com/hth350/historical-theology-an-introduction-to-history-of -christian-thought_ebook_2e.php/Chapter 2/The Patristic Period, c.100–451, Case Studies.

https://plato.stanford.edu/entries/trinity/trinity-history.html

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Tertullian

18 Who is Jesus, according to the Niceno-Constantinopolitan
Creed?

According to the Nico-Constantinopolitan Creed, Jesus is: Lord,
“the Son of God, the Only-Begotten,
begotten of the Father before all ages; Light
of Light; True God of True God;
begotten, not made; of one essence with the Father, by Whom all things were
made; Who for us men and for our salvation, came down from Heaven, and was
incarnate of the Holy Spirit and the Virgin Mary, and became man. And He was
crucified for us under Pontius Pilate, and suffered, died and was buried. And
the third day He arose again, according to the Scriptures, and ascended into
Heaven, and sits at the right hand of the Father; and He shall come again with
glory to judge the living and the dead; Whose Kingdom shall have no end.”

He is part of a
triune Godhead with equal divinity with God, the Father. And although He is
made of the same substance matter as God, the Father, He is a separate Son of
God.

McGrath, A. E. (2013) Historical Theology: An introduction
to the history of Christian thought. (Second Edition) Available from http://lc.gcumedia.com/hth350/historical-theology-an-introduction-to-history-of
-christian-thought_ebook_2e.php/
Chapter 2/The Patristic Period, c.100–451,
Case Studies.)

http://web.mit.edu/ocf/www/nicene_creed.html
The Nicene-Constantinopolitan Creed

HTH-350

T3 and T4 Reading Questions

Ensure that you properly cite references for each question when answering the
questions on this worksheet.

1.
According to McGrath, what is the purpose and
place of historical theology?

2.
How would Augustine respond to the question of
whether God created evil? What does Augustine mean when he says that evil is
the privation of the good? Thomas Aquinas also answer this question. How is his
response similar or different?

3.
How would Augustine
explain the relationship between faith, works, and forgiveness? What does the
Triune God (especially Jesus and the Holy Spirit) have to do with
forgiveness/salvation?

4.
How does Augustine explain the doctrine of the
Trinity? Why does he think the doctrine is so important?

5.
According to McGrath, why did monasticism rise in
prominence? By using the example of The Life of Antony, explain the nature and life of a monk.

6.
According to
McGrath, what is Byzantine theology and how did it develop??

7.
Summarize (point-by-point) what John of Damascus
refers to as the orthodox faith (e.g., God, the Trinity).

8.
What does Anselm’s prayer tell us about his
understanding of the process of
knowing God?

9.
How does Aquinas explain the role of reason in
knowledge in general and knowledge of God in particular? How does faith relate
to reason?

10. How does
“negative differentiation” relate to what Aquinas later discusses as the
likeness between God and creatures? Why can we say that creatures are like God
but God is not like creatures?

11. What is
analogical predication according to Aquinas?
How does it differ from Univocal and Equivocal predication?

12. Summarize
Bonaventure’s understanding of Scripture. This does not need to be overly
lengthy. Simply paraphrase his argument in the prologue.

13. Using McGrath
and other readings, compare and contrast Thomas
Aquinas and William of Ockham.

HTH-350

T5 and T6 Reading Questions

Ensure that you properly cite references for each question when answering questions on this worksheet.

1.
Using McGrath and the confessions/39-Articles,
compare and contrast the different versions of Protestant Christianity after
the Reformation (including Lutheranism, Reformed Church, Anabaptists, and
Anglicans).

2.
According to
Luther, What is Christian liberty and why are we free? What does he imply about
Christian ethics?

3.
After reading
the Schleitheim Confession, answer the
following: what is distinctive about the Anabaptists?

4.
Compare and
contrast the magisterial Reformers (Luther,
Zwingli, Calvin) from the Anabaptists. Use McGrath and the primary sources to answer.

5.
Compare and
contract Zwingli and Luther on the Eucharist, that is, the Lord’s Supper.

6.
Why does
Calvin think the knowledge of God and the knowledge of self are interconnected?

7.
How does Calvin think
every human bears knowledge of God innately?

8.
Calvin
believes that the Son and Spirit are autotheos. What does he
mean? Why is this important for the doctrine of the Trinity?

9.
Summarize
Trueman’s lecture: What is the relationship between Calvin and Calvinism? How is he related
to the later Reformed tradition?

10. How is Melanchthon similar and different from
Martin Luther before him? Summarize Melanchthon’s theology?

11. What are the differences between Calvinism and
Arminianism? What are the similarities?

12. Summarize Cardinal Cajetan’s understanding of faith
and works? How is this related to justification?

13. According to Trent, how is a person justified? That
is, how does justification take place? What view are they fighting against?

14. Compare
and contrast Trent’s view of justification to the Protestant view of
justification in
the readings. How is a person justified? That is, how does justification take
place? Use at least two additional secondary sources to help guide the
discussion.

Textbook Link: McGrath, A. E. (2013). Historical theology: An introduction to the history of Christian Thought. (2nd Ed.)

http://gcumedia.com/digital-resources/wiley/2012/historical-theology_an-introduction-to-the-history-of-christian-thought_ebook_2e.php