Chapter 3 fallacies

For correlation questions, use your background knowledge and the concepts we discussed in this chapter to determine whether:

• A causes B
• B causes A
• there is a common cause (of both A and B)
• or an accidental correlation exists.

Flag question: Question 1Question 11 pts

In __________ we are trying to create situations in which a candidate feature fails one of the tests.

Flag question: Question 2Question 21 pts

Correlation is not a necessary condtion for causation, but it is a sufficient condition for causation.

Flag question: Question 3Question 31 pts

Determine the causal relationship in the following:

There is a positive correlation between U.S. spending on science, space, and technology (A) and suicides by hanging, strangulation, and suffocation (B).

Flag question: Question 4Question 41 pts

Determine the causal relationship in the following:

The girth of an adult’s waist (A) is negatively correlated with the height of her/his vertical leap (B).

Flag question: Question 5Question 51 pts

The height of the tree in our front yard (A) positively correlates with the height of the shrub in our backyard (B).

Flag question: Question 6Question 61 pts

Which problem does the following generalization have?

After attending college for a semester, Ben observes that all of his textbooks have been in e-text format. Ben generalizes that all of his textbooks for the entirety of his college career will be available in e-text.

Flag question: Question 7Question 71 pts

There is a negative correlation between the number of suicide bombings in the U.S. (A) and the number of hairs on a particular U.S. President’s head (B).

Flag question: Question 8Question 81 pts

Determine the causal relationship in the following:

There is a high positive correlation between the number of fire engines in a particular city in California (A) and the number of fires that occur there (B).

Flag question: Question 9Question 98 pts

Match each term to its appropriate meaning

Flag question: Question 10Question 101 pts

Determine the causal relationship in the following:

There is a strong positive correlation between the number of traffic accidents on a particular highway (A) and the number of billboards featuring scantily-clad models (B).

Flag question: Question 11Question 111 pts

To calculate the probability of a disjunction you would subtract the probability that some event (A) will occur from 1.

Flag question: Question 12Question 121 pts

Identify which explanatory virtue is being violated in the following explanation:

Adam hires a team to install a security system. When Adam goes to check the system, he notices that the alarm system isn’t working. The security system foreman tells him that the work was done on time, so it must have been a group of robbers who showed up and took all of the installed equipment, but unfortunately since no one saw them and therefore, it can’t be proven that they did it, Adam will have to pay for the installation again.

Flag question: Question 13Question 131 pts

The number of gray hairs on an individual’s head (A) is positively correlated with the number of children or grandchildren they have (B).

Flag question: Question 14Question 141 pts

There are always multiple conditions called __________ that must be in place for any cause to occur.

Flag question: Question 15Question 151 pts

In Inductive arguments, adding more premises usually ensures that the probability the conclusion is true increases.

Flag question: Question 16Question 161 pts

Inferring a statistical generalization about a population from too few instances of that population is referred to as:

Flag question: Question 17Question 171 pts

We attribute the idea that the simplest explanation is the best one to:

Flag question: Question 18Question 181 pts

Independent, random events can be influenced by each other.