# Health & Medical Question

Health & Medical Question

## Learning Outcomes

This week students will:

1. Create a basic research proposal
2. Evaluate a research proposal
3. Identify the various types of data gathered in research studies
4. Review the common sampling methods
5. Explain how measurement methods relate to a study’s research question/hypothesis

## Introduction

In Week Four of our course, we will focus on the topic of measurement. We will examine how we determine what type of data we need to gather to help us answer our research questions. Data comes in various forms, so it is important to understand how we gather each type and what each of the different types will tell us. We will also start to bring together all of the concepts we have learned thus far into a cohesive whole. This week’s discussion has you proposing a research study. For your discussion response, you will evaluate the proposals of your classmates as if you were the person determining if the proposal is funded. The quiz addresses content from Week Three related to sampling in addition the content regarding measurement from this week. While there is no written assignment this week, you are strongly encouraged to continue writing your final paper and not save it all for next week. Good luck!

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## Required Resources

### TEXTS

Osherson, D. & Lane, D. (n.d.) Levels of measurement. In Lane, D. M. Online statistics education: An interactive multimedia course of study (Chapter 1.9). Retrieved from http://onlinestatbook.com/2/introduction/levels_of…

Viswanathan, M. (2005). Chapter 1: What is measurement (1-10, 61-63). In Measurement Error and Research Design. SAGE Publications, Inc.: Thousand Oaks, CA. Retrieved from http://www.sagepub.com/upm-data/4933_Viswanathan_C…

### ARTICLES

Bannigan, K. and Watson, R. (2009). Reliability and validity in a nutshell. Journal of Clinical Nursing, 18, 3237-3243. Retrieved from the EBSCOhost database.

• This article explains the different concepts of reliability and validity as they are related to measurement instruments in social science and health care.

Huan, X., Tang, W., Babu, G., Li, J., Zhang, M., Liu, X., Yan, H., Fu, G., Zhao, J., Yang, H., & Detels, R. (2013). HIV Risk-Reduction Counseling and Testing on Behavior Change of MSM. PLoS One, 8(7), 1-22, doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0069740. Retrieved from the PubMed Central database.

• This article discusses the results of a study evaluating behavioral changes after counseling to reduce risk behaviors, and is the basis for this week’s quiz.

• This article provides an overview of the fundamental concepts of measurement in research.

## Recommended Resources

### MULTIMEDIA

Films Media Group. (2008). Researching health: Research methods made accessible [Video file]. In Films on Demand.

• In this program, students are provided with a sound introduction to three key research methods used in conducting investigations into health.

### WEBSITES

McGranaghan, M. (2014). Guidelines on writing a research proposal. Retrieved from http://www2.hawaii.edu/~matt/proposal.html

University of Southern California. (2013). Writing a research proposal. Organizing your social sciences research paper. Retrieved from http://libguides.usc.edu/c.php?g=235034&p=1559840

• This guide is intended to help you organize and write a quality research paper for classes taught in the social sciences.

The Writing Center. (n.d.). Grant proposals (or give me the money!). University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill. Retrieved from https://writingcenter.unc.edu/tips-and-tools/grant…

• This website provides an overview of the grant writing process.

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## Sampling and Measurement

Prior to beginning the quiz, closely review the required readings for this week, paying particular attention to the readings from Week 3 related to sampling, this week’s readings related to measurement, and the article by Huan, Tang, Babu, Li, Zhang, Liu, Yan, Fu, Zhao, Yang, & Detels (2013). Then, complete the quiz. The quiz contains eight multiple-choice questions (Part 1), eight matching questions (Part 2), and four short answer questions (Part 3). You will have up to three hours to complete the quiz once you begin. The quiz must be completed in one sitting, by Day 6 of the week in which it is due and the quiz may only be taken one time.

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