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Geology Research paper

An environmental/geological issue and write a paper 10 pages (including figures, tables, and references). The paper should be typed single-spaced.

Format for the Research paper


A summary should not exceed 400-500 words. Despite its short length, it is an important part of the paper. Based on the contents of the summary, readers often decide whether to continue reading the article. A good summary includes concise, to-the-point statements regarding the purpose, results (a statement about the methods of analyses may also be given here) and conclusions of the article in well-structured paragraphs. ‘Short’ and ‘simple’ are the key points when writing a summary for your article.


About 1-2 pages long. As the name implies, it introduces the subject to the reader. It should give:

1. A short historic background (e.g. when, and by whom the matter was raised first; connection to people

lives; chronology of events if possible).

2. Outstanding questions remaining to be answered.

3. What the paper is set to do (objective).

An introduction usually contains citations from other works on the subject such that the readers are informed as to where they can locate key sources about the subject under discussion. The introduction section should also be the most non-technical part of the paper so that readers can decide whether the reading benefits them. As a courtesy to readers, you may add a paragraph at the end, describing how you plan to proceed with your analyses.

Analyses and Discussion

This will be the bulk of your paper, typically 4-7 pages long, including text, data tables, maps, photos and graphs. The analyses and discussion must be your take from what you have read and researched, and come in your own words. The best approach is to break it down into a number of subheadings so that reader does not get lost. You may number the subheadings in order of their importance, or just have subheadings. This approach allows the readers to skip unwanted sections as well as letting them see the order and structure of your paper. It also makes it easy for you to keep track of the development of the subject as you write.

It is advisable that you design the paper with all its subsections in mind before you write, but this may not always be possible. If you include diagrams, maps, charts, photos or graphs, they must be labeled and have captions, complete with a figure number assigned at the beginning of the caption, like: Fig. 2. Graph showing decrease in coal prices over the 1972-1995 period (Smith, 1989); Table 3. Coal as a percentage of energy budget in Kentucky (White 1996).


No more than a page, usually one or two paragraphs. Put all the salient points of the paper here.However, you need to present these points in some order of importance commensurate with the way you posed the issues in the analyses/discussion part. Without the conclusion section, a paper sounds like a story or a newspaper article. Do not conclude something that is not supported by what you presented in the discussion. For example, in the future of coal in the Midwest paper, conclusions may be:

1. Coal mining has made significant contribution to the region’s economy by raising the standard of living.

2. Coal mining also created some unique regional environmental problems that need to be

considered as soon as possible

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