Punishment and Death Penalty Research Paper

Part 1 This assignment builds upon the following assignments you submitted previously:

  • Module 4 Dropbox: Identification, Research, Analysis
  • Module 5 Dropbox: Application – Act Utilitarianism
  • Module 6 Dropbox: Application – Kantian Ethics

Be sure to review the feedback you received from those assignments, and make any necessary revisions BEFORE moving forward with this assignment.

Focusing on the same case as before, you will now complete the last three steps of the critical thinking process: 5) Decision, 6) Evaluation, and 7) Reflection.

Again, read the Case Provided Below – entitled, “Grace in the Pandemic”.

Grace in the Pandemic

Grace is an online college student.  She lives at home with her father who is a professor at her college, her elderly grandmother, and her four-year -old brother. Grace, her father and grandmother have all been vaccinated.  Her younger brother is not vaccinated, as he is too young to get the vaccine. Grace is worried about her brother as he suffers from asthma.

Grace works part-time at a local restaurant.  She was furloughed during the pandemic but was rehired when the restaurant could reopen.  There are many new rules that she must follow. The rules were put into place by the restaurant owner.  All of the rules were implemented to keep patrons and workers safe during the continuing pandemic. 

Grace attended a Zoom meeting with the restaurant owner, wherein the owner personally outlined the new rules requiring lower capacity, wearing masks and social distancing.  The owner also discussed rules that specifically apply to Grace’s new role at the restaurant.  In addition to her regular duties, Grace, and all employees, must: always wear a mask while inside the restaurant, social distance, stay home if feeling ill, wash their hands often, and disinfect all tables and seats every time patrons finish their meal and leaves a restaurant.  The owner impressed upon Grace that if she could not adhere to these rules, she could not return to work. 

The owner also instructed Grace to report anyone not following the rules since the owner would not be on the property.  The owner explained that she genuinely cares about her patrons and workers, and she wants this to be a safe workplace environment.  

When Grace returned to work, she saw others following the rules outlined by the owner, most of the time.  As the weeks went on, she noticed that the rules she discussed with the owner were being implemented less and less.  Her manager now told employees to wear a mask when the public could see them, but when not visible, the manager said, “Don’t bother with a mask.  What the patrons don’t know can’t hurt them.” Also, social distancing began to disappear, and capacity was normally far above the limit the owner had set.  Some patrons complained and left, although enough stayed to keep the restaurant busy.  When Grace asked the manager why they are over capacity and not social distancing, the manager responded, “Don’t be a baby.  Either be happy with the extra tips or find another job.”  

Most evenings were busy, and Grace was now told to stop disinfecting tables and seats between customers.  The manager claimed it took too much time.

One evening, when arriving at work, Grace overheard the manager’s conversation with the owner.  While on speaker phone she heard the owner confirm with the manager that all of the pandemic policies were being followed. She asked if masks were being worn at all times, about social distancing, capacity limits, etc.  The manager lied.  He said he was strictly enforcing the wearing of masks, social distancing, capacity and hygiene rules. 

When the phone conversation was over, Grace walked away but the manager saw her.  “Hey, Grace” he shouted, “If you keep your mouth shut, we’ll be fine.”

Grace asked, “But shouldn’t the owner know?”

The manager furiously reacted, “You’ll lose your job if she finds out you and the others weren’t following the rules”  

What should Grace do?

Follow the Sample Format: Decision, Evaluation, Reflection, and submit to this Dropbox using MLA formatting.  

Complete this assignment, as follows:

Decision (150 words minimum)

Consider the main ethical/moral issue you previously identified in Module 4.  Answer the “should” question by stating the option you determined to be the wisest and most ethical.

For example, The most ethical decision is for _____  to…

Be impartial. Avoid any bias; do not express your own personal opinion; do not use the words, “I think” or “I feel.” The decision should be based upon your completion of the previous steps of the critical thinking process: 1) Identification, 2) Research, 3) Analysis and 4) Application of Act Utilitarianism and Kantian Ethics.

Clearly justify and support your decision. For example, This decision is morally justified because… Discuss how the results of determining Net Utility and applying Universality and Respect-for-Persons informed your decision.  A justification is necessary – there is no better option.  What would justify your decision to all of the stakeholders?

Evaluation (150 words minimum)

To evaluate your decision, play “devil’s advocate.” Think of some objections or arguments someone could make against your decision.  List three potential objections to your decision, and then write a defense against each objection. Each defense should be based upon an ethical theory and/or logic.

For example, if you determined that the most ethical decision is for Jack to report Jill’s stealing to the boss, one objection might be, If Jack informs his boss, Jill might retaliate against him. A defense against that objection could be, Jack believes reporting misconduct is his moral duty, and, therefore, overrides any concern of possible retaliation. (Kantian Ethics)

Objection 1 –
For example, If Jack informs his boss, Jill might retaliate against him.

Defense –
For example, Jack believes reporting misconduct is his moral duty, and, therefore, overrides any concern of possible retaliation. (Kantian Ethics)

Objection 2 –

Defense –

Objection 3 –

Defense –

Reflection (150 words minimum)

Reflect on the critical thinking process and the steps involved. What do you think of the process? What did you learn from the process? Could it bring value to making decisions? Are there certain parts that you found more (or less) useful? Would you use it in the future? Would you use it, or parts of it, in your everyday life? What ethical principles do you rely on consistently? Do not write about the case itself, the decision you reached, or what you thought should or should not have happened relating to the case. Instead, reflect on the process of critical thinking, and how you feel about it.

Use the Dropbox Grading Criteria to help guide your completion of this assignment.

Dropbox Rules

  • Use MLA Formatting. Double-space the entire document. Adjust all font color/style/size to black Times New Roman 12 pt. Put the heading in the upper left corner of the first page; include your name, the professor’s name, the course name, and the date. Use the document header to display your last name and page number in the upper right corner of each page. Put the “Works Cited” on the last page, and the total word count at the end of the document.
  • Attach your submission in the proper Microsoft Word format .doc or .docx or .rtf.
  • Review your TurnItIn Report. View the Reviewing a TurnItIn Report tutorial. Resubmit if necessary.

Part 2

For this Discussion, you will summarize the results of applying the critical thinking process to the case, and reply to one of your classmates. You must post first before you will be able to see the posts of your classmates.

Start a New Thread, and for the subject type your name. Then, write three paragraphs, as follows:

Identification (one sentence in bold print)

State the main ethical/moral issue you identified. You may copy/paste the main ethical/moral issue you previously identified in Module 4.

Decision (150 words minimum)

State your decision, and describe how you determined it to be morally justified. You may copy/paste the decision portion of your Module 7 Dropbox: Decision, Evaluation, Reflection assignment.

Reflection (150 words minimum)

Share your thoughts about the critical thinking process. You may copy/paste the reflection portion of your Module 7 Dropbox: Decision, Evaluation, Reflection assignment.

Reply Post (50 words minimum)

After you have posted your summary, read the posts of your classmates. Reply to one (or more) of your classmates, and compare your results. How similar or different was your identification of the main ethical/moral issue? Did you reach a similar decision, or was your decision different from your classmate’s? How did your opinion of the critical thinking process compare with your classmate’s? After having read your classmate’s summary, what might you do differently next time?

Use the Discussion Grading Criteria – Mod 7 to help guide your completion of this assignment.

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