Discussion Board WITH REPLIES IN FIRST PERSON!!!!!!!!!!!!

Read selected portions of “Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report” by Frieden, et al., 2011, located in the Reading & Study folder for this module/week. Discuss the following points in your thread. Review the Discussion Board Instructions before posting your thread.

  • How is “health disparity” defined in this landmark CDC report? Are all health disparities preventable or correctable? What bottom-line societal interventions would likely address most, if not all, health disparities?
  • Describe and give examples of the health disparity presented in the topic area you read. What can be done in the near future to reduce these disparities? Are the disparities likely to be eliminated? Why or why not? What barriers stand in the way?
  • What would Jesus do to reduce or eliminate the disparity about which you read? What does He want you to do about it?

Discussion Board Instructions

You will participate in 8 Discussion Board Forums by 1) posting a thread in response to the stated prompt, and 2) posting replies in response to classmates’ threads. Each Discussion Board Forum topic presents a thought-provoking question or prompt based on recent article(s) in the scientific and professional literature of public health. Each prompt is designed to enhance your learning experience as you write about your ideas, perspectives and experiences, and receive feedback from your classmates. Both the frequency of your participation and the depth of the content you write will affect your grade. Use the Discussion Board Grading Rubric to improve the quality of your contributions and follow the specific requirements described below.

Note: Threads and replies must be completed within the assigned module/week or no credit will be awarded.

THREAD

For each forum, post a thread in response to the topic prompts provided. Your post should contain 400–500 words and adhere to AMA writing style guidelines. This word limit promotes writing that is thorough yet concise enough to permit your peers to read all the posts. If the Discussion Board Forum prompts you to answer a series of questions, make sure you address all of them thoroughly within the word limit. Do not restate the questions in your post; simply begin a new paragraph for each new thought. The goal is to have a seamless written argument closed by a brief conclusion tying together your individual responses. Use your best critical reasoning skills, employing the Universal Intellectual Standards as a guide, but not a strict outline. Refer to specific statements of the author(s) whenever appropriate but limit direct quotations to a maximum of 25 words for your entire post. Since this is a personal discussion, you may use first person; however, you should maintain professional decorum at all times.

Your thread should be posted to the appropriate Discussion Board Forum by 11:59 p.m. (ET) on Thursday of the assigned module/week.

REPLIES

After reading your classmates’ threads, post a reply to at least 2 classmates by clicking “Reply” within the thread to which you intend to respond. These replies are designed to stimulate thought-provoking discussion, building upon or expanding the knowledge presented. Your instructor is looking for substantive, reasoned comments, not mere agreement with the initial thread on which your reply is based. In your replies, state why you liked or disliked a comment, adding additional thoughts or ideas to your classmate’s, and/or providing alternative ideas or disagreeing thoughts. Your comments should be critical but kind, “speaking the truth in love” (Eph. 4:15). Help one another with good communication skills, both by example and instruction. Substantiate your position by referencing pertinent statements from the resource under discussion, but avoid lengthy quotes from it. You may also reference other professional or peer-reviewed sources, though this is not a requirement. Each reply should contain 200–250 words and adhere to AMA writing style guidelines.

Replies to your classmates’ threads are due by 11:59 p.m. (ET) on Sunday of the assigned module/week, except for Module/Week 8 when replies will be due by 11:59 p.m. (ET) on Friday.Discussion Board Instructions

You will participate in 8 Discussion Board Forums by 1) posting a thread in response to the stated prompt, and 2) posting replies in response to classmates’ threads. Each Discussion Board Forum topic presents a thought-provoking question or prompt based on recent article(s) in the scientific and professional literature of public health. Each prompt is designed to enhance your learning experience as you write about your ideas, perspectives and experiences, and receive feedback from your classmates. Both the frequency of your participation and the depth of the content you write will affect your grade. Use the Discussion Board Grading Rubric to improve the quality of your contributions and follow the specific requirements described below.

Note: Threads and replies must be completed within the assigned module/week or no credit will be awarded.

THREAD

For each forum, post a thread in response to the topic prompts provided. Your post should contain 400–500 words and adhere to AMA writing style guidelines. This word limit promotes writing that is thorough yet concise enough to permit your peers to read all the posts. If the Discussion Board Forum prompts you to answer a series of questions, make sure you address all of them thoroughly within the word limit. Do not restate the questions in your post; simply begin a new paragraph for each new thought. The goal is to have a seamless written argument closed by a brief conclusion tying together your individual responses. Use your best critical reasoning skills, employing the Universal Intellectual Standards as a guide, but not a strict outline. Refer to specific statements of the author(s) whenever appropriate but limit direct quotations to a maximum of 25 words for your entire post. Since this is a personal discussion, you may use first person; however, you should maintain professional decorum at all times.

Your thread should be posted to the appropriate Discussion Board Forum by 11:59 p.m. (ET) on Thursday of the assigned module/week.

REPLIES

After reading your classmates’ threads, post a reply to at least 2 classmates by clicking “Reply” within the thread to which you intend to respond. These replies are designed to stimulate thought-provoking discussion, building upon or expanding the knowledge presented. Your instructor is looking for substantive, reasoned comments, not mere agreement with the initial thread on which your reply is based. In your replies, state why you liked or disliked a comment, adding additional thoughts or ideas to your classmate’s, and/or providing alternative ideas or disagreeing thoughts. Your comments should be critical but kind, “speaking the truth in love” (Eph. 4:15). Help one another with good communication skills, both by example and instruction. Substantiate your position by referencing pertinent statements from the resource under discussion, but avoid lengthy quotes from it. You may also reference other professional or peer-reviewed sources, though this is not a requirement. Each reply should contain 200–250 words and adhere to AMA writing style guidelines.

Replies to your classmates’ threads are due by 11:59 p.m. (ET) on Sunday of the assigned module/week, except for Module/Week 8 when replies will be due by 11:59 p.m. (ET) on Friday.Discussion Board Instructions

You will participate in 8 Discussion Board Forums by 1) posting a thread in response to the stated prompt, and 2) posting replies in response to classmates’ threads. Each Discussion Board Forum topic presents a thought-provoking question or prompt based on recent article(s) in the scientific and professional literature of public health. Each prompt is designed to enhance your learning experience as you write about your ideas, perspectives and experiences, and receive feedback from your classmates. Both the frequency of your participation and the depth of the content you write will affect your grade. Use the Discussion Board Grading Rubric to improve the quality of your contributions and follow the specific requirements described below.

Note: Threads and replies must be completed within the assigned module/week or no credit will be awarded.

THREAD

For each forum, post a thread in response to the topic prompts provided. Your post should contain 400–500 words and adhere to AMA writing style guidelines. This word limit promotes writing that is thorough yet concise enough to permit your peers to read all the posts. If the Discussion Board Forum prompts you to answer a series of questions, make sure you address all of them thoroughly within the word limit. Do not restate the questions in your post; simply begin a new paragraph for each new thought. The goal is to have a seamless written argument closed by a brief conclusion tying together your individual responses. Use your best critical reasoning skills, employing the Universal Intellectual Standards as a guide, but not a strict outline. Refer to specific statements of the author(s) whenever appropriate but limit direct quotations to a maximum of 25 words for your entire post. Since this is a personal discussion, you may use first person; however, you should maintain professional decorum at all times.

Your thread should be posted to the appropriate Discussion Board Forum by 11:59 p.m. (ET) on Thursday of the assigned module/week.

REPLIES

After reading your classmates’ threads, post a reply to at least 2 classmates by clicking “Reply” within the thread to which you intend to respond. These replies are designed to stimulate thought-provoking discussion, building upon or expanding the knowledge presented. Your instructor is looking for substantive, reasoned comments, not mere agreement with the initial thread on which your reply is based. In your replies, state why you liked or disliked a comment, adding additional thoughts or ideas to your classmate’s, and/or providing alternative ideas or disagreeing thoughts. Your comments should be critical but kind, “speaking the truth in love” (Eph. 4:15). Help one another with good communication skills, both by example and instruction. Substantiate your position by referencing pertinent statements from the resource under discussion, but avoid lengthy quotes from it. You may also reference other professional or peer-reviewed sources, though this is not a requirement. Each reply should contain 200–250 words and adhere to AMA writing style guidelines.

Replies to your classmates’ threads are due by 11:59 p.m. (ET) on Sunday of the assigned module/week, except for Module/Week 8 when replies will be due by 11:59 p.m. (ET) on Friday.

First reply (in first person when replying to them):

Hanna Burnett

DB 8 – Health disparities

COLLAPSE

Health Disparities

In the MMWR article of ‘CDC Health Disparities and Inequalities Report – United States, 2011’ health disparities are defined as ‘differences in health outcomes between groups that reflect social inequalities’.1 Social inequalities can be further categorized to form from differences in race and ethnicity, ones economic and educational status, and the 10 determinants of health as explained in the Solid Facts by the World Health Organization.2 Technically all health disparities are preventable and correctable but achieving this requires a lot of teamwork and effort from the entire country. Most people support a society where everyone is given equal opportunities to succeed. Lack of public awareness of health disparities and the ability to modify them should therefore be a focus of public health workers. With increased public support needed resources for correcting these disparities would be easier to achieve.1 In order to bridge thehealth gaps between populations there needs to be a clear understanding of causes, clear communication between the numerous departments responsible for action (federal, state, local), and an accountability for follow-up.1 I don’t know if there is a single societal intervention that could possibly address most of the health disparities because the reasons for disparities are massively complex and interconnected, and range from structural disparities to environmental conditions.3 But looking at this from global perspective, the countries with least amounts of health disparities have high income and high education levels throughout the population.4 So we could say that interventions aimed at increasing socio-economic status would be very helpful.

Inadequate and unhealthy housing

Housing expenses are often the single largest portion of person’s finances. There are two types of housing disparities that can effect persons health. One is physically inadequate housing with deficiencies in structural protections from environmental elements, lack of access to hot/cold water or electricity. The other type is unhealthy housing where water leaks from pipes cause decreased air quality (from mold), cracks in foundation allow radon to seep in, and lead paint is peeling off walls and causes brain development to slow down in young children. Both kinds of deficiencies are unable to promote health and safety of occupants.1 As the article pointed out, housing disparity disproportionally effects population sub-groups with least amount of financial resources and education; therefore compounding the adverse health effects from environmental hazards with lack of insurance and access to medical / preventative care. Negative physical effects can be measured easier than the emotional and mental effects of living in unsafe environment, but it should not be discarded that it too has an effect on ones health in the form of increased stress and fear.

One current idea to reduce housing disparities is to focus on urban planning and changing zoning regulations in the suburbia. They have both been found to be effective ways to increase physical safety of living conditions (urban planning) and elevate populations to middle-income neighborhoods (rezoning).5 Some other ways to bridge the gap are tightened ‘minimum’ regulations on rental apartments (i.e working utilities, smoke-detectors, mold and lead free units). Sadly I don’t believe we will reach the desired compliance in the near future because there is not enough public pressure for developing long-term vision as a nation. Individual towns and communities will fare better in changing the landscape of unsafe housing.

What would Jesus do? (and my role)

Judging by what Jesus did during his time on Earth, I would guess that he would open and soften our hearts to see the opportunities we already have to create a more just world for everyone around us. He would increase our compassion and decrease our greed. He would remind us to ‘love your neighbor as yourself’.6 Because honestly, if we chose to share our resources, we would see a world where many more people had access to all they needed.

I’m not sure what my role is currently in reducing housing disparities other than learning how it effects (and how interconnected) it is to the public’s health. Putting best effort into my studies will help me (eventually, when I graduate and get employed in public health) in being an effective conduit for bringing biblically based ideas to planning and strategy.

References:

1.Centers doe Disease Control and Prevention. CDC health disparities and inequalities report – United States, 2011. MMWR. 2011; 60 (Suppl): 1-109.

2. World Health Organization. Social determinants of health: the solid facts. 2nd ed. Edited by Wilkinson R, Marmot M. WHO Europe. 2003.

3. National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2017. The root causes of health inequity. Communities in action: pathways to health equity. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. Doi: 10.17226/24624.

4. Hero JO, Zaslavsky AM, Blendon RJ. The United States leads other nations in differences by income in perceptions of health and health care. Health Affairs. 2017 Jun; 36: 6. Doi: 10.1377/hlthaff.2017.0006.

5. Thornton RLJ, Glover CM, Cene CW, Glik DC, Henderson JA, Williams DR. Evaluating strategies for reducing health disparities by addressing social determinants of health. Health Aff (Millwood). 2016 Aug; 35(8): 1416-1423. Doi: 10.1377/hlthaff.2015.1357.

6. Mark 12:31. The Holy Bible. New International Version.

Second reply:

JoAnna Monroe

DB 8 – yay! Attachment

COLLAPSE

The CDC defines health disparities as differences in health outcomes and their causes between different portions of the population through social, demographic, geographical and environmental qualities.1 Health disparities are ongoing and greatly influenced by age structure, racial/ethnic diversity, and income inequalities and have continued to rise as the U.S. population becomes older and more ethnically diverse.1 Health disparities can certainly be reduced and/or corrected through public awareness and understanding of what changes need to occur within the most vulnerable parts of the population.1 Reducing health disparities, inequalities and inequities reduce preventable morbidity and mortality over time.1 There are many societal interventions addressing health disparities, but I believe that societal interventions surrounded by urban planning and community development prove to have the most impact.

Health disparities such as cardiovascular disease and obesity, are greatly affected by our community environments.2 Urban planning and community developing has the potential to change the landscape of communities by providing changes in nutrition, physical activity, and safety.2 One of the ways to reduce these disparities are for communities to provide initiatives on addressing access to healthy foods through improving shopping behaviors, nutritional knowledge, stocking policies at stores, and price adjustments.2 Physical activity initiatives, like applying biking paths to local community streets, can make it possible for children to have access to safe biking routes for their morning commutes to school.2 Interventions addressing alcohol distribution and outlets in low-income communities can also have a great impact on substance abuse related morbidity, crime and neighborhood safety.2 Each of these interventions can provide great assistance in reducing disparities, but I do not believe they would be fully eliminated due to the need for communities to be fully engaged. I believe that there will never be a full solution to health disparities in the U.S., only interventions to significantly reduce. In most situations, it comes down to the individual wanting to make changes for themselves and sometimes no matter what resources are provided, individuals may still decline to participate.

I believe that Jesus would physically be involved in each intervention, pulling everyone along to participate. Jesus would be encouraging us to live healthy lives, just the way He did, by walking and eating healthy. God is already using me in my everyday job to make an impact by working with patients to address their social determinants of health needs after they are discharged from the hospital. I know firsthand that it is not an easy task, but lives are changed every day!

References

1. Truman BI, Smith CK, Roy K, et al. Rationale for regular reporting on health disparities and inequalities – United States. CDC Health Disparities and Inequalities Report. 2011;60:1-114. https://learn.liberty.edu/bbcswebdav/courses/HLTH509_B05_201940/HLTH509_LUO_8wk_DEV_ImportedContent_20180908095519/MMWR.pdf

2. Thorton RLJ, Glover CM, Cene CW, Glik DC, Henderson JA, Williams DR. Evaluating strategies for reducing health disparities by addressing the social determinants of health. Health Affairs. 2016;35(8):1416-1423. doi:10.1377/hlthaff.2015.1357.


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