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Respond to at least four classmates’ posts by Wednesday, December 11: You may address the same question or a different question for your replies. You may address classmates’ essays directly or another group members’ replies to essays. The purpose of the replies is to create substantive discussion about the subject material of the essay, as if you were sitting in a group together discussing the topic. (Consider the significance, impact, cause, effect, relevance to another topic studied in the class or to current events today, your own connection to the material…..) Replies are NOT to be literary or writing critiques. (minimum 125 words – roughly equivalent to one paragraph).
**The essay is worth one exam grade.
**Each of the four replies is worth 20 points, and the total score of the replies is worth one exam grade.
Mughal architecture is the distinctive Indo-Islamic architectural style that developed in northern and central India under the patronage of Mughal emperors from the 16th to the 18th century. It is a remarkably symmetrical and decorative amalgam of Persian, Turkish, and Indian architecture. The Mughals were also renowned for creating exquisite gardens in the Persian charbagh layout, in which the quadrilateral gardens were divided by walkways or flowing water into four smaller parts. Early Mughal architecture first developed during the reign of Akbar the Great (1556–1605), who commissioned palaces, mosques , gardens, and mausoleums. The architecture was a synthesis of Persian, Turkic, Timurid Iranian, Central Asian, and Indian Hindu and Muslim styles. Akbari architecture is also remarkable for its large scale use of sandstone, evident both in the construction of Fatehpur Sikri, Akbar’s royal city, and Akbar’s own tomb in Sikandra. The mosque at Fatehpur Sikri boasts the Buland Darwaza, the largest gateway of its kind in India. Early Mughal mosques had massive enclosed courtyards and domed shallow prayer halls. One of the most stellar accomplishments of Mughal architecture under Akbar is the tomb of his father Humayun, situated in Delhi. Commissioned in 1562 by Humayun’s wife, Hamida Banu Begum, and designed by a Persian architect, Humayun’s Tomb was the first garden tomb on the Indian subcontinent and the first structure to use red sandstone on such a large scale. It is also the first Indian building to use the Persian double dome , with an outer layer supporting a white marble exterior—a material not seen in earlier Mughal architecture—and the inner layer giving shape to the cavernous interior volume . The use of indigenous Rajasthani decorative elements is particularly striking, including the small canopies or chhatris (elevated, dome shaped pavilions) surrounding the central dome. It boasts the use of the pietra dura technique, with marble and even stone inlay ornamentation in geometrical and arabesque patterns on the facade of the mausoleum, and jali or latticed stone carving decoration. This style of decorative facade was an important addition to Mughal architecture and flourished in later Mughal mausolea, including the Taj Mahal. Under the rule of Jahangir (1605—1627), Mughal architecture became more Persian than Indian. Jahangir’s great mosque at Lahore is a good example of the Persian style and is covered with enameled tiles. At Agra, the tomb of Itmad-ud-Daula, completed in 1628, was built entirely of white marble and decorated in elaborate pietra dura mosaic , an inlay technique of using cut and fitted, highly polished colored stones to create images. Located in Agra, the Taj Mahal is a white marble mausoleum built between 1632 and 1648 by Shah Jahan in memory of his third wife, Mumtaz Mahal. Constructed by 20,000 men, it represents the Islamic garden of paradise and is widely regarded as the greatest achievement in Mughal architecture.
Dating back to the 1400s, America as we know today endured many Hardships that led to independence and freedom that we currently have. This Country was founded on the bases for new land and hope, amongst these aspirations, one Italian Explorer made it possible to find our roots that we have today, Stability, and foundation. Christopher Columbus an Italian explorer whom is known to have discovered America in his European voyages.
Christopher Columbus is mainly known for his discovery of the new world, although it is said that Columbus was not the first person to land in America, he is known to be the bridge that opened the Americas for conquest and prosperity. A book published by author Freeman, Russell called Who Was First: Discovering America, indicates evidence that other settlers have reached America prior to Christopher Columbus arrival, to include the Vikings, Chinese, and Irish Monks. The evidence consists of ship wrecks, traces of settlements and publications of travel. The question that arouses is why none of the following are recognized for their discovery. In the simplest way, it was until 1492 when the Italian explorer landed in the new world claiming the new land for Spain, placing Pre-America on the map for other countries.
Besides discovering the new land on his voyage, Columbus provided stability with an enormous amount of renewable resources discovered on the new land. This aided Spain and many European countries whom needed to break away from the grasp of china and the western front of Europe where they normally outsourced spices and food and to include the countries whom faced difficulty in producing crops. America had massive resources to offer, however, the resources had to be made and farmed. The normality of the habitat lands was based on the concept of hunter s and gatherers, with Columbus introducing the new technology and concepts to the new lands, they were able to use more of their useless lands and farm crops etc. Pre America was then set to motion on become a stable entity.
In the continued conquest to reap the benefits of these new lands, Christopher Columbus introduces the Columbian Exchange. This concept is the bringing of live stocks, produce, and minerals in order to grow in the receptive lands and return to sell at the home front. Lands became farm enabled and the habitants were introduced to new methods of farming and transportations via horses. All this sets a foundation to begin, however, the consequence came after. The exchange even though can still be traced back today in its efficiency such as sugar farms in the Caribbean, it also had a heavy toll many payed. Due to the mixture of two different cultures and the germs associated within them, unknown diseases begin to upraise affecting both Europe and the new world. In this exchange, money was the objective leading to exile of many locals in the conquest for gold by the European explorers. Europe benefited in riches and resources, and Pre-America barely benefiting from the new methods and technology did not benefit from this exchange because of the price that came with it, for example, in the search for gold locals were given a quota they must provide and if incapable they would either be killed or punished.
In conclusion, the upcoming to the America we know today can be dated back to the bridging of the two continents by Christopher Columbus, in his voyages to provide a foundation for the acquired lands in hope to make rich lands and bring up to par with Europe’s advances
3. In the 1920’s and 30’s, Stalinism was the only game in town in the Soviet Union. The time period begins with the civil war between the White and Red Armies. The methods of Soviet communism differed from traditional Marxism in its methods of bringing about communism and the structure of the society. Soviet communism developed the way it did largely because of the rapid growth of industrialism. The things the Soviet Union had to do to industrialize at the pace they did ultimately led to much of the challenges they faced later down the line.
Soviet communism differed from Marxist tradition in a few key ways. One of the primary differences was the type of movement used to bring about communism. Marxist ideology suggests that widespread class consciousness will lead to a working class movement to bring about the revolution. The textbook describes the Soviet method as follows, “the disciplined, armed vanguard that ruled with monopoly power and instilled the ideology of communism in an expanding working class after the revolution” (Sivers 664). Due to the fact that the Bolsheviks were a smaller faction, they faced some extra adversity than they would had it been a traditional Marxist mass movement.
Soviet communism also made use of a strong governing body. The textbook describes this, stating “Joseph Stalin built the Communist Party into a powerful apparatus that shifted resources from agriculture to industry and dealt ruthlessly with opposition” (Sivers 664). Traditionally Marxist communism is meant to bring about a classless, stateless society, but Soviet communism faced challenges inhibiting them from achieving that society. The intention was as Lenin famously said, to leave “all power to the soviets”, meaning to leave communal organizing to councils of workers. But due to Stalin’s rapid industrialization, the power was much more centralized.
The way the Soviet Union developed was largely driven by the rapid industrialization the country underwent. The country was still largely agricultural when the Bolsheviks took over. In order to help the industrialization efforts, Stalin decided to collectivize the countries agriculture production. Large amounts of land was taken from the Kulaks and distributed to the peasantry or used by the state. Another cost of the rapid industrialization is that the resources needed for that cause were great, leaving little for other things. The textbook states “little investment was left over for consumer goods and household articles, and people had to make due with shoddy goods, delivered irregularly to government outlets and requiring patients to wait in long lines” (Sivers 665). Many other causes could be attributed to the development of Soviet communism, but most can be tied back in some way to the efforts to industrialize. Stalin often conducted purges within his party, and he was likely paranoid. This certainly impacted the country’s growth. The collectivization efforts and other pressures associated with the industrialization of the country likely led to internal strife that in turn led to Stalin’s paranoia.
The Soviet Union went from being a largely agriculture focused country to being one of the large industrial powers in a very short period of time. This came at a cost, but was remarkable nonetheless. The rapid industrialization led to many of the challenges that the Soviet Union faced in their development of a Communist state. It also led to many of the differences between Soviet Communism and traditional Marxism. The 1920’s and 30’s were a turbulent time in the Soviet Union, and the rise of Fascism to the West in Germany meant more trouble was soon to arrive.
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